Personne :
Tremblay, Jean-Pierre

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Tremblay
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Jean-Pierre
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Université Laval. Département de biologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 18
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Compositional and functional trajectories of herbaceous communities after deer density control in clear-cut boreal forests
    (Conseil national de recherches du Canada, 2015-02-17) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Poulin, Monique; Bachand, Marianne; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Côté, Steeve D.
    Overabundant populations of large herbivores have strong persistent effects on forest composition, structure, and function. However, the mechanism through which plant communities recover their original composition and function after herbivore management remains poorly understood. We assessed the temporal trajectories of the herbaceous communities in Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss stands on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada) over 8 years following clear-cutting and deer management. The impact of deer exclusion or reduction to 7.5 and 15 deer·km–2 was compared with benchmark in situ deer densities (27 and 56 deer·km–2). Effects of deer management treatments on plant species and functional trait assemblages over time were assessed using principal response curves. Although complete deer exclusion seemed necessary to modify species composition from that occurring under intense browsing, a reduced density of 7.5 deer·km–2 was sufficient to induce significant changes in functional trait assemblages of regenerating stands. For instance, reduced deer densities favored plants with brightly colored flowers and compound inflorescences pollinated by animals and producing large seeds and fleshy fruits dispersed by animals. We conclude that the boreal forest's herbaceous communities are resilient to chronic browsing when deer population reduction and forest clearcutting are applied in synergy.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Contributions of digestive plasticity to the ability of white-tailed deer to cope with a low-quality diet
    (American Society of Mammalogists, 2016-05-28) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Bonin, Michaël; Côté, Steeve D.
    Many herbivores exhibit phenotypic variations of their digestive system in response to changes in quality of food resources. This digestive plasticity is considered an adaptive trait for individuals to help them cope with variation in food resources and to fulfill nutritional needs. We investigated whether digestive phenotypic variations could contribute to sustain the population of introduced white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada) facing a winter diet of low-quality forage. We compared digestive morphology and in vitro digestibility of winter forage to that of deer from the original mainland population. Deer on Anticosti Island had a higher ruminal volume and digesta load (43% and 62%, respectively), greater absorption surface of the ruminal papillae, and greater relative mass of all forestomachs than deer from the mainland. Woody forage digestibility was similar between the 2 populations, even though faster kinetic digestion may occur for deer on Anticosti Island. Digestive plasticity appears to play a central role in sustaining high deer densities facing harsh forage conditions on Anticosti Island. Comparisons of digestive morphology and digestibility between populations that have access to forage of variable quality contribute to our understanding of the digestive response and the role of digestive plasticity for individuals facing a decline in diet quality
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Winter severity modulates the benefits of using a habitat temporally uncoupled from browsing
    (Ecological Society of America, 2016-08-30) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Dussault, Christian; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Côté, Steeve D.
    Resources whose abundance is not affected by the density of the consumer population, namely donor-controlled resources, are ubiquitous. Donor-controlled resources can act as food subsidies when they sustain consumer populations at higher densities than what would be predicted without donor-controlled dynamics. Herbivore populations that have access to food subsidies may reach and maintain high densities, with potential major ecological and economic consequences. A better understanding of the roles of food subsidies on temperate herbivores will likely be achieved by simultaneously taking into account other drivers of demographic variations such as winter severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the use of a donor-controlled food resource that may act as a food subsidy, namely balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and winter severity act together to shape the patterns of overwinter mass loss in a large herbivore population (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus). We monitored weather conditions, diet, habitat use, and mass loss of female deer during two highly contrasted winters. During an exceptionally milder winter, characterized by shallower snow depth and warmer windchill temperatures, female deer shifted their diet toward resources usually covered by snow during typical winters. Surprisingly, the rate of body mass loss remained similar during the milder and the harsher winter. The rate of body mass loss rather decreased with the use of balsam fir stands during the harsher winter, but increased with that same variable during the milder winter. Our study revealed that deer can alleviate overwinter mass loss by using a donor-controlled habitat type temporally uncoupled from browsing, but that this benefit is climate dependent. This study represents an additional step to address the largely unexplored concept of how temporal uncoupling between resources and consumer dynamics may contribute to sustain consumer populations at higher densities than predicted without considering donor-controlled dynamics.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Management of forest regeneration in boreal and temperate deer-forest systems : challenges, guidelines and research gaps
    (Ecological Society of America, 2016-10-14) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Thiffault, Nelson.; Pothier, David; Côté, Steeve D.; Beguin, Julien
    Heavy browsing pressure from large ungulates is a multicontinent phenomenon that causes regeneration failure of many palatable tree species and induces important socioeconomic and ecological impacts in forest ecosystems. The development of forest management practices that address adequately this issue, however, remains scarce and challenging because (1) large herbivores are both a resource and a source of disturbance; (2) the management of forests and ungulate populations remains largely disconnected in practice; and (3) we still lack a good understanding of the role of critical factors, especially deer densities, vegetation attributes, and their interactions, on the magnitude of browsing damages on forest regeneration. We bring new insights into these challenging issues by critically reviewing the current methods used by managers and conservationists to mitigate deer impacts on forest regeneration, emphasizing the spatial scale at which these methods are undertaken. Specifically, we review management actions at multiple scales on both deer populations (e.g., hunting) and vegetation (e.g., silvicultural treatments) that are common to most deer–forest systems and, for that reason, deserve priority investigation. We identify strengths and limitations of current management actions and highlight the main research gaps. Based on this review, we propose a new integrated management scheme that explicitly addresses: (1) the integration and prioritization of management actions, (2) the development of adaptive management plans, and (3) the participation of stakeholders. Conflicting demands by different stakeholders have challenged the effectiveness of management strategies in deer–forest systems. To reverse this situation, we advocate for a shift of paradigm and the development of integrated strategies that (1) bridge the gap between management actions and the design of in situ experiments and (2) coordinate actions at multiple spatial scales on both deer populations and forests. We propose a new framework informed by key objectives and grounded in the adaptive management paradigm to support this transition, and suggest a research agenda for the next decade(s).
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing
    (Public Library of Science, 2012-12-13) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D.; Champagne, Émilie
    Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots) and nitrogen fertilisation (0 and 10 g m22) experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Spatial extent of neighboring plants influences the strength of associational effects on mammal herbivory
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-29) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D.; Champagne, Émilie
    There is high variability in the level of herbivory between individual plants from the same species with potential effects on population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem structure and function. This variability can be partly explained by associational effects (i.e., the impact of the presence of neighboring plants on the level of herbivory experienced by a focal plant) but it is still unclear how the spatial scale of plant neighborhood modulates foraging choice of herbivores, an inherently spatial process in itself. Using a meta-analysis, we investigated how spatial scale modifies associational effects on the susceptibility to browsing by herbivores with movement capacities similar to deer. From 2496 articles found in literature databases, we selected 46 studies providing a total of 168 differences of means in damage by herbivores or survival to woody plants (mostly) with and without neighboring plants. Spatial scales were reported as distance between plants or as plot size. We estimated the relationships between the effect sizes and spatial scale, type of associational effects, and nature of the experiment using meta-analysis mixed models. The strength of associational effects declined with increasing plot size, regardless of the type of associational effects. Associational defenses (i.e., decrease in herbivory for focal plants associated with unpalatable neighbors) had stronger magnitude than associational susceptibilities. The high remaining heterogeneity among studies suggests that untested factors modulate associational effects, such as nutritional quality of focal and neighboring plants, density of herbivores, timing of browsing, etc. Associational effects are already considered in multiple restoration contexts worldwide, but a better understanding of these relationships could improve their use in conservation, restoration, and forest exploitation when browsing is a concern. This study is the first to investigate spatial patterns of associational effects across species and ecosystems, an issue that is essential to determine differential herbivory damages among plants.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Phytochemicals involved in plant resistance to leporids and cervids : a systematic review
    (Plenum Publishing Corporation, 2019-12-20) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Royo, Alejandro A.; Champagne, Émilie; Raymond, Patricia
    Non-nutritive phytochemicals (secondary metabolites and fibre) can influence plant resistance to herbivores and have ecological impacts on animal and plant population dynamics. A major hindrance to the ecological study of these phytochemicals is the uncertainty in the compounds one should measure, especially when limited by cost and expertise. With the underlying goal of identifying proxies of plant resistance to herbivores, we performed a systematic review of the effects of non-nutritive phytochemicals on consumption by leporids (rabbits and hares) and cervids (deer family). We identified 133 out of 1790 articles that fit our selection criteria (leporids = 33, cervids = 97, both herbivore types = 3). These articles cover 18 species of herbivores, on four continents. The most prevalent group of phytochemicals in the selected articles was phenolics, followed by terpenes for leporids and by fibre for cervids. In general, the results were variable but phenolic concentration seems linked with high resistance to both types of herbivores. Terpene concentration is also linked to high plant resistance; this relationship seems driven by total terpene content for cervids and specific terpenes for leporids. Tannins and fibre did not have a consistent positive effect on plant resistance. Because of the high variability in results reported and the synergistic effects of phytochemicals, we propose that the choice of chemical analyses must be tightly tailored to research objectives. While researchers pursuing ecological or evolutionary objectives should consider multiple specific analyses, researchers in applied studies could focus on a fewer number of specific analyses. An improved consideration of plant defence, based on meaningful chemical analyses, could improve studies of plant resistance and allow us to predict novel or changing plant-herbivore interactions.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Spatial correlations between browsing on balsam fir by white-tailed deer and the nutritional value of neighboring winter forage
    (Wiley, 2018-02-10) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Moore, Ben D.; Côté, Steeve D.; Champagne, Émilie
    Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir (Abies balsamea) herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce (Picea glauca) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300–400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Experimental warming alters migratory caribou forage quality
    (Ecological Society of America, 2017-08-29) Zamin, Tara J.; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D.; Grogan, Paul
    Global declines in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer) populations have drawn attention to the myriad of stressors that these Arctic and boreal forest herbivores currently face. Arctic warming has resulted in increased tundra shrub growth and therefore Rangifer forage quantity. However, its effects on forage quality have not yet been addressed although they may be critical to Rangifer body condition and fecundity. We investigated the impact of 8 yrs of summer warming on the quality of forage available to the Bathurst caribou herd using experimental greenhouses (n = 5) located in mesic birch hummock tundra in the central Canadian Low Arctic. Leaf forage quality and digestibility characteristics associated with nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), phenolics, and fiber were measured on the deciduous shrub Betula glandulosa (an important Rangifer diet component) at six time points through the growing season, and on five other very common vascular plant and lichen species in late summer. Experimental warming reduced B. glandulosa leaf nitrogen concentrations by ~10% in both late June and mid-July, but not afterwards. It also reduced late summer forage quality of the graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum by increasing phenolic concentrations 38%. Warming had mixed effects on forage quality of the lichen Cetraria cucullata in that it increased nutrient concentrations and tended to decrease fiber contents, but it also increased phenolics. Altogether, these warming-induced changes in forage quality over the growing season, and response differences among species, highlight the importance of Rangifer adaptability in diet selection. Furthermore, the early season reduction in B. glandulosa nitrogen content is a particular concern given the importance of this time for calf growth. Overall, our demonstration of the potential for significant warming impacts on forage quality at critical times for these animals underscores the importance of effective Rangifer range conservation to ensure sufficient appropriate habitat to support adaptability in forage selection in a rapidly changing environment.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    An experimental study of how variation in deer density affects vegetation and songbird assemblages of recently harvested boreal forests
    (National Research Council, 2012-05-11) Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Cardinal, Étienne; Côté, Steeve D.; Martin, Jean-Louis
    Intense browsing by abundant large herbivores can threaten the ecological integrity of ecosystems by inducing modifications in the structure and composition of vegetation that trigger trophic cascades affecting plant and animal communities. We investigated the relationships between density of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)), forest succession after clear-cut, and songbird communities on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. We hypothesized that lower deer densities would alter the trajectory of forest succession after clear-cutting and lead to a rapid recovery of habitat attributes favorable to songbirds associated with a dense complex shrub layer. Six years after establishing a controlled browsing experiment (0, 7.5, 15, and >27 deer·km–2) in recent clearcuts, reducing deer densities ≤7.5 deer·km–2 initiated the restoration of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) forests and increased the regeneration of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall). Increasing birch ground cover from 10% to 20% increased songbird total abundance, species richness, and diversity by 17%, 39%, and 31%, respectively. Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum Brewster, 1895) was only present at ≤7.5 deer·km–2 and strongly associated with birch regeneration. The regeneration of browse-resistant plants such as white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in some areas at high deer density favored the maintenance of many shrub-dependent songbirds but also species usually associated with forest canopy. Active management of deer populations in Canadian harvested boreal forests will mitigate losses in vegetation and songbirds caused by over-browsing.