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Nadeau, Maxime

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Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and aortic valve microcalcification assessed by 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography and computed tomography
    (ScienceDirect, 2019-04-12) Bilodeau, Anthony; Thériault, Sébastien; Nadeau, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit; Chen, Hao Yu; Bourgeois, Raphaëlle; Shen, Mylène; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel; Després, Audrey-Anne; Guimond, Jean; Bossé, Yohan; Engert, James; Perrot, Nicolas; Couture, Patrick; Mathieu, Patrick; Witztum, Joseph L.; Dweek, Marc
    Background Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is the preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) and a well-established genetic risk factor for calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Whether Lp(a) predicts aortic valve microcalcification in individuals without CAVS is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of elevated Lp(a) and OxPL levels in patients with CAVS and to determine if individuals with elevated Lp(a) but without CAVS have higher aortic valve microcalcification. Methods We recruited 214 patients with CAVS from Montreal and 174 patients with CAVS and 108 controls from Québec City, Canada. In a second group of individuals with high (≥75 nmol/L, n = 27) or low (<75 nmol/L, n = 28) Lp(a) levels, 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed to determine the difference in mean tissue-to-background ratio (TBR) of the aortic valve. Results Patients with CAVS had 62.0% higher Lp(a) (median = 28.7, interquartile range [8.2-116.6] vs 10.9 [3.6-28.8] nmol/L, P < 0.0001), 50% higher OxPL-apolipoprotein-B (2.2 [1.3-6.0] vs 1.1 [0.7-2.6] nmol/L, P < 0.0001), and 69.9% higher OxPL-apolipoprotein(a) (7.3 [1.8-28.4] vs 2.2 [0.8-8.4] nmol/L, P < 0.0001) levels compared with individuals without CAVS (all P < 0.0001). Individuals without CAVS but elevated Lp(a) had 40% higher mean TBR compared with individuals with low Lp(a) levels (mean TBR = 1.25 ± 0.23 vs 1.15 ± 0.11, P = 0.02). Conclusions Elevated Lp(a) and OxPL levels are associated with prevalent CAVS in patients studied in an echocardiography laboratory setting. In individuals with elevated Lp(a), evidence of aortic valve microcalcification by 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography is present before the development of clinically manifested CAVS.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Genetic Variation in LPA, calcific aortic valve stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and familial risk of aortic valve microcalcification
    (JAMA Network, 2019-07-01) Bilodeau, Anthony; Thériault, Sébastien; Dina, Christian; Nadeau, Maxime; Chen, Hao Yu; Arsenault, Benoit; Boekholdt, Stefan Matthijs; Trottier, Mikaël; Rigade, Sidwell; Capoulade, Romain; Després, Audrey-Anne; Guimond, Jean; Bossé, Yohan; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Pibarot, Philippe; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Perrot, Nicolas; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Tessier, Michel; Mathieu, Patrick; Engert, James; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Dweck, Marc; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Thanassoulis, George
    IMPORTANCE: Genetic variants at the LPA locus are associated with both calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether these variants are associated with CAVS in patients with CAD vs those without CAD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the associations of LPA variants with CAVS in a cohort of patients undergoing heart surgery and LPA with CAVS in patients with CAD vs those without CAD and to determine whether first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS and high lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels showed evidence of aortic valve microcalcification. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This genetic association study included patients undergoing cardiac surgery from the Genome-Wide Association Study on Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis in Quebec (QUEBEC-CAVS) study and patients with CAD, patients without CAD, and control participants from 6 genetic association studies: the UK Biobank, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk, and Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (GERA) studies and 3 French cohorts. In addition, a family study included first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS. Data were collected from January 1993 to September 2018, and analysis was completed from September 2017 to September 2018. EXPOSURES: Case-control studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Presence of CAVS according to a weighted genetic risk score based on 3 common Lp(a)-raising variants and aortic valve microcalcification, defined as the mean tissue to background ratio of 1.25 or more, measured by fluorine 18-labeled sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography. RESULTS: This study included 1009 individuals undergoing cardiac surgery and 1017 control participants in the QUEBEC-CAVS cohort; 3258 individuals with CAVS and CAD, 41 100 controls with CAD, 2069 individuals with CAVS without CAD, and 380 075 control participants without CAD in the UK Biobank, EPIC-Norfolk, and GERA studies and 3 French cohorts combined; and 33 first-degree relatives of 17 patients with CAVS and high Lp(a) levels (≥60 mg/dL) and 23 control participants with normal Lp(a) levels (<60 mg/dL). In the QUEBEC-CAVS study, each SD increase of the genetic risk score was associated with a higher risk of CAVS (odds ratio [OR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.10-1.66]; P = .003). Each SD increase of the genetic risk score was associated with a higher risk of CAVS in patients with CAD (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.20-1.42]; P < .001) and without CAD (OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.14-1.55]; P < .001). The percentage of individuals with a tissue to background ratio of 1.25 or more or CAVS was higher in first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS and high Lp(a) (16 of 33 [49%]) than control participants (3 of 23 [13%]; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, a genetically elevated Lp(a) level was associated with CAVS independently of the presence of CAD. These findings support further research on the potential usefulness of Lp(a) cascade screening in CAVS.