Personne : Lachance, Dominic.
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Département de Médecine expérimentale, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval
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- PublicationAccès libreEffectiveness of β-blockade in experimental chronic aortic regurgitation(American Heart Association, 2004-09-13) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Gaudreau, Martin.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground— Past studies have suggested that the adrenergic system becomes abnormally activated in chronic volume overload, such as in severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR). However, the effectiveness of agents directed against this adrenergic activation has never been adequately tested in chronic AR. We therefore tested the effects of metoprolol treatment on the left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling in severe chronic AR in rats. Methods and Results— Severe AR was created in adult male Wistar rats by retrograde puncture of the aortic leaflets under echocardiographic guidance. Two weeks later, some animals received metoprolol treatment (25 mg/kg) orally for 24 weeks, and some were left untreated. LV dimensions, ejection fraction, and filling parameters were evaluated by echocardiography. Hearts were harvested at 1, 2, 14, and 180 days for the evaluation of hypertrophy, β-adrenergic receptor status, and extracellular matrix remodeling. We found that metoprolol treatment prevented LV dilatation and preserved the ejection fraction and filling parameters compared with untreated animals. Metoprolol increased the expression of β1-adrenoreceptor mRNA and reduced G protein receptor kinase 2 levels. Collagen I and III mRNA levels were reduced. Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was also prevented. Conclusions— In our experimental model of severe AR, metoprolol treatment had a significant beneficial global effect on LV remodeling and function. These results suggest that the adrenergic system is important in the development of volume-overload cardiomyopathy in AR and that adrenergic-blocking agents may play a role in the treatment of this disease.
- PublicationAccès libreEndurance training or beta-blockade can partially block the energy metabolism remodeling taking place in experimental chronic left ventricle volume overload.(BioMed Central, 2014-12-17) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Gascon, Suzanne; Arsenault, Marie; Sarrhini, Otman; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, RogerBACKGROUND: Patients with chronic aortic valve regurgitation (AR) causing left ventricular (LV) volume overload can remain asymptomatic for many years despite having a severely dilated heart. The sudden development of heart failure is not well understood but alterations of myocardial energy metabolism may be contributive. We studied the evolution of LV energy metabolism in experimental AR. METHODS: LV glucose utilization was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (microPET) scanning of 6-month AR rats. Sham-operated or AR rats (n = 10-30 animals/group) were evaluated 3, 6 or 9 months post-surgery. We also tested treatment intervention in order to evaluate their impact on metabolism. AR rats (20 animals) were trained on a treadmill 5 times a week for 9 months and another group of rats received a beta-blockade treatment (carvedilol) for 6 months. RESULTS: MicroPET revealed an abnormal increase in glucose consumption in the LV free wall of AR rats at 6 months. On the other hand, fatty acid beta-oxidation was significantly reduced compared to sham control rats 6 months post AR induction. A significant decrease in citrate synthase and complex 1 activity suggested that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was also affected maybe as soon as 3 months post-AR.Moderate intensity endurance training starting 2 weeks post-AR was able to partially normalize the activity of various myocardial enzymes implicated in energy metabolism. The same was true for the AR rats treated with carvedilol (30 mg/kg/d). Responses to these interventions were different at the level of gene expression. We measured mRNA levels of a number of genes implicated in the transport of energy substrates and we observed that training did not reverse the general down-regulation of these genes in AR rats whereas carvedilol normalized the expression of most of them. CONCLUSION: This study shows that myocardial energy metabolism remodeling taking place in the dilated left ventricle submitted to severe volume overload from AR can be partially avoided by exercise or beta-blockade in rats.
- PublicationAccès libreGene profiling of left ventricle eccentric hypertrophy in aortic regurgitation in rats : rationale for targeting the β-adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems(American Physiological Society, 2009-03-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Champetier, Serge.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieAortic valve regurgitation (AR) imposes a severe volume overload to the left ventricle (LV), which results in dilation, eccentric hypertrophy, and eventually loss of function. Little is known about the impact of AR on LV gene expression. We, therefore, conducted a gene expression profiling study in the LV of rats with acute and severe AR. We identified 64 genes that were specifically upregulated and 29 that were downregulated out of 21,910 genes after 2 wk. Of the upregulated genes, a good proportion was related to the extracellular matrix. We subsequently studied a subset of 19 genes by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to see if the modulation seen in the LV after 2 wk persisted in the chronic phase (after 6 and 12 mo) and found that it did persist. Knowing that the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems are overactivated in our animal model, we were interested to see if blocking those systems using metoprolol (25 mg·kg−1·day−1) and captopril (100 mg·kg−1·day−1) would alter the expression of some upregulated LV genes in AR rats after 6 mo. By qRT-PCR, we observed that upregulations of LV mRNA levels encoding for procollagens type I and III, fibronectin, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-β2, and connective tissue growth factor were totally or partially reversed by this treatment. These observations provide a molecular rationale for a medical strategy aiming these systems in the medical treatment of AR and expand the paradigm in the study of this form of LV volume overload.
- PublicationAccès libreTranscriptional changes associated with long-term left ventricle volume overload in rats : impact on enzymes related to myocardial energy metabolism.(Hindawi, 2015-10-25) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Walsh-Wilkinson, Élisabeth; Dhahri, Wahiba; Gascon, Suzanne; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Sarrhini, Otman; Arsenault, Marie; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, RogerPatients with left ventricle (LV) volume overload (VO) remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO). Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling.
- PublicationAccès libreTreatment of combined aortic regurgitation and systemic hypertension : insights from an animal model study.(Oxford University Press, 2006-08-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Gaudreau, Martin.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Hypertension (HT) and aortic valve regurgitation (AR) often coexist but the specific impacts of AR + HT on the left ventricle (LV) are still unknown. The best treatment strategy for this combination of diseases is also unclear. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate LV function, remodeling and 2) to assess the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (C) in rats with AR ± HT in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods : Animals were grouped as follows: normotensive (NT) Wistar-Kyoto, NT + AR, hypertensive SHR (HT), and HT + AR receiving or not captopril (150 mg/kg/d). Hearts were evaluated in vivo by echocardiography and harvested for tissue analysis after 6 months of evolution. Results : The HT + AR rats had the worst LV hypertrophy (LVH), subendocardial fibrosis, and lowest ejection fraction. Captopril normalized BP in HT and HT + AR, but could not prevent LVH in HT + AR as well as it did in isolated HT. The LV ejection fraction remained below normal in HT + AR + captopril compared to HT alone + captopril. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remained in HT + AR + captopril but was normalized in HT + captopril. Subendocardial fibrosis was reduced by captopril in HT + AR. Conclusions : The AR + HT rats had the most severe myocardial abnormalities. High dose captopril was effective to slow LVH and preserve normal LV ejection fraction in isolated HT or AR, but was less effective when both pathologies were combined. Prohypertrophic stimuli clearly remain active in HT + AR despite ACE inhibition. These results suggest that a very aggressive medical treatment strategy may be required to optimize LV protection when AR and HT co-exist.
- PublicationAccès libreA comparative study of vasodilators in an animal model of chronic volume overload caused by severe aortic regurgitation(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009-01-20) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Champetier, Serge.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground— Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a disease of chronic left ventricular (LV) volume overload. Over time, AR will lead to LV dilatation, hypertrophy, and loss of function. There is currently no medical treatment proven effective to slow the evolution of this cardiomyopathy. Vasodilators were once thought to have protective effects, but recent publications have cast some doubts about their effectiveness. We hypothesized that drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system should be more effective than those having no direct effect on the renin-angiotensin system. Methods and Results— We designed a protocol comparing the effects of 3 vasodilators in a rat AR model (n=9 to 11 animals per group). The effects of a 6-month treatment of (1) nifedipine, (2) captopril, or (3) losartan were compared in male AR rats. Sham-operated and untreated AR animals were used as controls. Nifedipine-treated animals displayed hemodynamics, LV dilatation, hypertrophy, and loss of function similar to those of the untreated group. Both captopril and losartan were effective in improving hemodynamics, slow LV dilatation, hypertrophy, and dysfunction. Gene expression analysis confirmed the lack of effects of the nifedipine treatment at the molecular level. Conclusions— Using an animal model of severe AR, we found that vasodilators targeting the renin-angiotensin system were effective to slow the development of LV remodeling and to preserve LV function. As recently shown in the most recent human clinical trial, nifedipine was totally ineffective. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system seems a promising avenue in the treatment of this disease, and clinical trials should be carefully designed to re-evaluate the effectiveness of angiotensin I–converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in AR.
- PublicationAccès libreModerate exercise training improves survival and ventricular remodeling in an animal model of left ventricular volume overload.(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009-09-15) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Champetier, Serge.; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND: Exercise training has beneficial effects in patients with heart failure, although there is still no clear evidence that it may impact on their survival. There are no data regarding the effects of exercise in subjects with chronic left ventricular (LV) volume overload. Using a rat model of severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR), we studied the effects of long-term exercise training on survival, development of heart failure, and LV myocardial remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred sixty male adult rats were divided in 3 groups: sham sedentary (n=40), AR sedentary (n=80), and AR trained (n=40). Training consisted in treadmill running for up to 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 9 months, at a maximal speed of 20 m/minute. All sham-operated animals survived the entire course of the protocol. After 9 months, 65% of trained animals were alive compared with 46% of sedentary ones (P=0.05). Ejection fractions remained in the normal range (all above 60%) and LV masses between AR groups were similar. There was significantly less LV fibrosis in the trained group and lower LV filling pressures and improved echocardiographic diastolic parameters. Heart rate variability was also improved by exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that moderate endurance training is safe, does not increase the rate of developing heart failure, and most importantly, improves survival in this animal model of chronic LV volume overload. Exercise improved LV diastolic function, heart rate variability, and reduced myocardial fibrosis.
- PublicationAccès libreDobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats(BioMed Central, 2005-10-26) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods : 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results : Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion : DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of anesthesia on echocardiographic evaluation of systolic and diastolic function in rats(Elsevier, 2006-11-28) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Echocardiography is used on rats but general anesthesia is usually necessary to be able to obtain a good quality echocardiogram. Each type of anesthetic agent has specific impacts on hemodynamics and, therefore, may affect differentially the echocardiographic measurements. Objectives : We sought to compare the echocardiograms of normal rats and rats with chronic aortic regurgitation under anesthesia using ketamine-xylazine or isoflurane. Methods : Animals underwent an echocardiogram with both drugs sequentially. Echocardiographic measurements were compared. Results : Mitral diastolic Doppler measurements (early diastolic filling wave [E] and late atrial diastolic filling wave [A] velocities) were significantly affected by the type of anesthesia in the normal group but not left ventricular dimensions or ejection fraction. Left ventricular dimensions were affected by the type of anesthesia in the aortic regurgitation group and diastolic Doppler flow. Conclusion : The anesthetic agent has significant specific impacts on many echocardiographic measurements. Investigators working with rat models should be aware of those potential effects.
- PublicationAccès libreEarly left ventricular remodeling in acute severe aortic regurgitation : insights from an animal model.(Hertfordshire : ICR, 2008-05-03) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) induces left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and eventually LV dysfunction. While the effects of chronic AR on the left ventricle are well known, the effects of acute AR have not been adequately evaluated. It was hypothesized that the LV tissues would be rapidly remodeled by acute AR, and that the renin-angiotensin system would be involved in that acute remodeling. METHOD: The early LV adaptations to acute AR were evaluated serially over a period of 14 days, using a rat model. Adaptations were evaluated in vivo by echocardiography, and in vitro on explanted heart tissue after one, two, or 14 days. RESULTS: After 14 days, the left ventricle of AR rats was already significantly hypertrophied and dilated (end-diastolic diameter +16% (p <0.05) versus sham; LV mass +16% (p <0.01) versus sham). A short and transient increase in fractional shortening was observed during the first 48 h after AR induction. The cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and perivascular fibrosis were significantly increased after 14 days of AR. The number of fibronectin-positive cells in LV sections rapidly increased, as did the fibronectin protein and mRNA content of LV crude homogenates. The expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 was clearly abnormal after two days. Significant shifts in the expression of angiotensin II receptors were also detected as early as one 1 day. CONCLUSION: Significant macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were present in the left ventricle of rats with acute AR, soon after its induction. Considerable hypertrophy, perivascular fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling were present after only 14 days. These results suggest that, in AR, the myocytes and ECM are affected significantly at a very early stage of the disease.