Personne : Lachance, Dominic.
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Département de Médecine expérimentale, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval
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- PublicationAccès libreEffects of spironolactone treatment on an experimental model of chronic aortic valve regurgitation(ICR, 2012-07-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Zendaoui, Adnane; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY : Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a disease for which there is currently no effective medical treatment. It has been shown previously in an experimental model of AR that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a major role, and that medications blocking the RAAS are effective to protect against left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and also help to maintain a normal systolic function. The role of aldosterone receptor blockers in this disease has never been evaluated. Thus, the effects were studied of the aldosterone receptor blocking agent spironolactone in a model of chronic AR in rats. METHODS : The effects of a six-month treatment with spironolactone were evaluated in adult Wistar rats with severe AR, compared to sham-operated and untreated AR animals. RESULTS : Spironolactone treatment decreased the total heart weight. In addition, the LV expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA was decreased by spironolactone treatment, as was the expression of collagen 1 and LOX1 mRNAs. Left ventricular fibrosis was decreased by spironolactone treatment. CONCLUSION : Spironolactone protected against volume-overload cardiomyopathy in this model of aortic valve regurgitation. The predominant protective effect was a decrease in myocardial fibrosis.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of anesthesia on echocardiographic evaluation of systolic and diastolic function in rats(Elsevier, 2006-11-28) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Echocardiography is used on rats but general anesthesia is usually necessary to be able to obtain a good quality echocardiogram. Each type of anesthetic agent has specific impacts on hemodynamics and, therefore, may affect differentially the echocardiographic measurements. Objectives : We sought to compare the echocardiograms of normal rats and rats with chronic aortic regurgitation under anesthesia using ketamine-xylazine or isoflurane. Methods : Animals underwent an echocardiogram with both drugs sequentially. Echocardiographic measurements were compared. Results : Mitral diastolic Doppler measurements (early diastolic filling wave [E] and late atrial diastolic filling wave [A] velocities) were significantly affected by the type of anesthesia in the normal group but not left ventricular dimensions or ejection fraction. Left ventricular dimensions were affected by the type of anesthesia in the aortic regurgitation group and diastolic Doppler flow. Conclusion : The anesthetic agent has significant specific impacts on many echocardiographic measurements. Investigators working with rat models should be aware of those potential effects.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of exercise in volume overload : insights from a model of aortic regurgitation(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009-06-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Bouchard Thomassin, Andrée-Anne; Champetier, Serge.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) imposes a pathologic volume overload to the left ventricle (LV), whereas aerobic exercise causes physiologic volume overloading. The impact of combining both LV volume overloads (pathologic and physiologic) is unknown. Considering the known beneficial effects of aerobic training on the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that the positive effects would outweigh the negative ones and that exercise would improve the tolerance of the LV to AR. Methods : Forty female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in the following groups: 1) sham sedentary (SS), 2) sham trained (ST), 3) AR sedentary (ARS), and 4) AR trained (ART). Training consisted in treadmill running for 30 min five times per week at 20 m·s−1 for 24wk. In vivo follow-up was made by echocardiography and invasive intracardiac pressure measurements. Hearts were harvested for tissue analysis. Results : Echocardiography revealed less LV dilation and hypertrophy in ART versus ARS as well as improved myocardial performance index. LV ejection fractions remained similar and within normal range in ART versus ARS. Invasive cardiac pressures yielded improved dP/dt− in ART versus ARS but similar dP/dt+. β1-Adrenergic receptor mRNA expression was improved in the ART group versus ARS. Conclusion : Our data suggest that a moderate aerobic exercise program helps minimize LV dilation and hypertrophy and improves diastolic cardiac performance in heart submitted to chronic volume overload due to severe aortic valve regurgitation in this animal model.
- PublicationAccès libreEarly left ventricular remodeling in acute severe aortic regurgitation : insights from an animal model.(Hertfordshire : ICR, 2008-05-03) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) induces left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and eventually LV dysfunction. While the effects of chronic AR on the left ventricle are well known, the effects of acute AR have not been adequately evaluated. It was hypothesized that the LV tissues would be rapidly remodeled by acute AR, and that the renin-angiotensin system would be involved in that acute remodeling. METHOD: The early LV adaptations to acute AR were evaluated serially over a period of 14 days, using a rat model. Adaptations were evaluated in vivo by echocardiography, and in vitro on explanted heart tissue after one, two, or 14 days. RESULTS: After 14 days, the left ventricle of AR rats was already significantly hypertrophied and dilated (end-diastolic diameter +16% (p <0.05) versus sham; LV mass +16% (p <0.01) versus sham). A short and transient increase in fractional shortening was observed during the first 48 h after AR induction. The cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and perivascular fibrosis were significantly increased after 14 days of AR. The number of fibronectin-positive cells in LV sections rapidly increased, as did the fibronectin protein and mRNA content of LV crude homogenates. The expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 was clearly abnormal after two days. Significant shifts in the expression of angiotensin II receptors were also detected as early as one 1 day. CONCLUSION: Significant macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were present in the left ventricle of rats with acute AR, soon after its induction. Considerable hypertrophy, perivascular fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling were present after only 14 days. These results suggest that, in AR, the myocytes and ECM are affected significantly at a very early stage of the disease.
- PublicationRestreintCarbonic anhydrase XII in valve interstitial cells promotes the regression of calcific aortic valve stenosis.(Academic Press Inc, Ltd., 2016-03-11) Lachance, Dominic.; Bouchareb, Rihab; Asselin, Jérémie; Boudreau, Denis; Marette, André.; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Le Quang, Khai; Côté, Nancy.; Bossé, Yohan; Shayhidin, Elnur Elyar; Messaddeq, Younès; El Husseini, Diala; Mahmut, Ablajan; Pibarot, Philippe; Hadji, Fayez; Mathieu, PatrickAims: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most common heart valve disease. In the present work we sought to determine the reversibility of mineralization in the aortic valve. Methods and results: By using in vitro analyses we found that valve interstitial cells (VICs) have the ability to resorb minerals. We documented that agonist of P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) promoted the expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) at the cell membrane of VICs, whereby minerals are resorbed. P2Y2R-mediated mineral resorption was corroborated by using mouse VICs isolated from wild type and P2Y2R-/- mice. Measurements of extracellular pH (pHe) by using core–shell nanosensors revealed that P2Y2R-mediated CAXII export to the cell membrane led to an acidification of extracellular space, whereby minerals are resorbed. In vivo, we next treated LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF2 mice, which had developed CAVS under a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 8 months, with 2-thioUTP (a P2Y2R agonist) or saline for the next 2 months. The administration of 2-thioUTP (2 mg/kg/day i.p.) reduced the mineral volume in the aortic valve measured with serial microCT analyses, which improved hemodynamics and reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Examination of leaflets at necropsy confirmed a lower level of mineralization and fibrosis along with higher levels of CAXII in mice under 2-thioUTP. In another series of experiment, the administration of acetazolamide (a CA inhibitor) prevented the acidification of leaflets and the regression of CAVS induced by 2-thioUTP in LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF2 mice. Conclusion: P2Y2R-mediated expression of CAXII by VICs acidifies the extracellular space and promotes the regression of CAVS.
- PublicationRestreintEarly development of calcific aortic valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy in a mouse model of combined dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus.(American Heart Association, 2014-08-14) Lachance, Dominic.; Bouchareb, Rihab; Kohen Avramoglu, Rita; Fournier, Dominique; Marette, André.; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Le Quang, Khai; El Husseini, Diala; Fang, Xiang Ping; Pibarot, Philippe; Deshaies, Yves; Sweeney, Gary; Mathieu, Patrick; Laplante, Marc AndréObjective—This study aimed to determine the potential impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on left ventricular dysfunction and the development of calcified aortic valve disease using a dyslipidemic mouse model prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approach and Results—When compared with nondiabetic LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100, diabetic LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF-II mice exhibited similar dyslipidemia and obesity but developed type 2 diabetes mellitus when fed a high-fat/sucrose/cholesterol diet for 6 months. LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF-II mice showed left ventricular hypertrophy versus C57BL6 but not LDLr-/-/ ApoB100/100 mice. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed significant reductions in both left ventricular systolic fractional shortening and diastolic function in high-fat/sucrose/cholesterol fed LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF-II mice when compared with LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100. Importantly, we found that peak aortic jet velocity was significantly increased in LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100/ IGF-II mice versus LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100 animals on the high-fat/sucrose/cholesterol diet. Microtomography scans and Alizarin red staining indicated calcification in the aortic valves, whereas electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy further revealed mineralization of the aortic leaflets and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in diabetic mice. Studies showed upregulation of hypertrophic genes (anp, bnp, b-mhc) in myocardial tissues and of osteogenic genes (spp1, bglap, runx2) in aortic tissues of diabetic mice. Conclusions—We have established the diabetes mellitus –prone LDLr-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF-II mouse as a new model of calcified aortic valve disease. Our results are consistent with the growing body of clinical evidence that the dysmetabolic state of type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to early mineralization of the aortic valve and calcified aortic valve disease pathogenesis.
- PublicationAccès libreBenefits of long-term beta-blockade in experimental chronic aortic regurgitation(American Physiological Society, 2008-04-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Champetier, Serge.; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieThe objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of beta-blockade on survival and left ventricular (LV) remodeling in rats with aortic valve regurgitation (AR). The pharmacological management of chronic AR remains controversial. No drug has been definitively proven to delay the need for valve replacement or to affect morbidity and/or mortality. Our group has reported that the adrenergic system is activated in an animal model of AR and that adrenergic blockade may help maintain normal LV function. The effects of prolonged treatment with a beta-blocker are unknown. Forty Wistar rats with severe AR were divided into 2 groups of 20 animals each and treated with metoprolol (Met, 25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or left untreated for 1 yr. LV remodeling was evaluated by echocardiography. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meir curves. Hearts were harvested for tissue analysis. All Met-treated animals were alive after 6 mo vs. 70% of untreated animals. After 1 yr, 60% of Met-treated animals were alive vs. 35% of untreated animals (P = 0.028). All deaths, except one, were sudden. There were no differences in LV ejection fraction (all >50%) or LV dimensions. LV mass tended to be lower in the Met-treated group. There was less subendocardial fibrosis in this group, as well as lower LV filling pressures (LV end-diastolic pressure). beta-Adrenergic receptor ratio (beta(1)/beta(2)) was improved. One year of treatment with Met was well tolerated. Met improved 1-yr survival, minimized LV hypertrophy, improved LV filling pressures, decreased LV subendocardial fibrosis, and helped restore the beta-adrenergic receptor ratio.
- PublicationAccès libreTranscriptional changes associated with long-term left ventricle volume overload in rats : impact on enzymes related to myocardial energy metabolism.(Hindawi, 2015-10-25) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Walsh-Wilkinson, Élisabeth; Dhahri, Wahiba; Gascon, Suzanne; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Sarrhini, Otman; Arsenault, Marie; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, RogerPatients with left ventricle (LV) volume overload (VO) remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO). Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling.
- PublicationAccès libreEndurance training or beta-blockade can partially block the energy metabolism remodeling taking place in experimental chronic left ventricle volume overload.(BioMed Central, 2014-12-17) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Gascon, Suzanne; Arsenault, Marie; Sarrhini, Otman; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, RogerBACKGROUND: Patients with chronic aortic valve regurgitation (AR) causing left ventricular (LV) volume overload can remain asymptomatic for many years despite having a severely dilated heart. The sudden development of heart failure is not well understood but alterations of myocardial energy metabolism may be contributive. We studied the evolution of LV energy metabolism in experimental AR. METHODS: LV glucose utilization was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (microPET) scanning of 6-month AR rats. Sham-operated or AR rats (n = 10-30 animals/group) were evaluated 3, 6 or 9 months post-surgery. We also tested treatment intervention in order to evaluate their impact on metabolism. AR rats (20 animals) were trained on a treadmill 5 times a week for 9 months and another group of rats received a beta-blockade treatment (carvedilol) for 6 months. RESULTS: MicroPET revealed an abnormal increase in glucose consumption in the LV free wall of AR rats at 6 months. On the other hand, fatty acid beta-oxidation was significantly reduced compared to sham control rats 6 months post AR induction. A significant decrease in citrate synthase and complex 1 activity suggested that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was also affected maybe as soon as 3 months post-AR.Moderate intensity endurance training starting 2 weeks post-AR was able to partially normalize the activity of various myocardial enzymes implicated in energy metabolism. The same was true for the AR rats treated with carvedilol (30 mg/kg/d). Responses to these interventions were different at the level of gene expression. We measured mRNA levels of a number of genes implicated in the transport of energy substrates and we observed that training did not reverse the general down-regulation of these genes in AR rats whereas carvedilol normalized the expression of most of them. CONCLUSION: This study shows that myocardial energy metabolism remodeling taking place in the dilated left ventricle submitted to severe volume overload from AR can be partially avoided by exercise or beta-blockade in rats.
- PublicationRestreintAngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril prevents volume overload cardiomyopathy in experimental chronic aortic valve regurgitation(National Research Council of Canada., 2004-03-12) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Gauthier, Cindy; Couët, Jacques; Lapointe, Évelyne; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Gaudreau, Martin.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieL'efficacité des inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine I (IECA) dans le traitement de l'insuffisance aortique (IA) chronique est encore mal comprise et controversée. Les mécanismes par lesquels les IECA ont un effet protecteur dans la surcharge de volume du ventricule gauche (VG) sont encore peu clairs et les études cliniques ont jusqu'à maintenant donné des résultats contradictoires. Dans cette étude, nous avons cherché à comparer l'efficacité de deux doses différentes d'un IECA (captopril) dans un modèle animal d'IA chronique. Chez des rats Wistar ayant une IA sévère, nous avons étudié les effets d'un traitement de 6 mois avec une faible dose de captopril (FD; 25 mg/kg) ou une haute dose (HD; 75 mg/kg) sur la fonction et l'hypertrophie du VG. Les rats IA témoins ont tous développé une hypertrophie excentrique du VG ainsi qu'une dysfonction systolique. Le traitement FD n'a pu prévenir l'hypertrophie et n'a procuré qu'une protection modeste contre la dysfonction systolique. Le traitement HD a préservé la fonction systolique et a eu tendance à ralentir le développement de l'hypertrophie du VG. L'index cardiaque est demeuré élevé et similaire pour chacun des groupes traités ou non. L'activité du système rénine–angiotensine (SRA) a aussi été étudiée. L'activité de l'ECA a augmenté dans les VGs des animaux IA et le traitement HD a fortement abaissé l'expression des ARNm encodant les différents récepteurs à l'angiotensine II dans ce tissu. L'expression de la fibronectine a augmenté dans les VG des animaux IA mais le traitement HD a presque complètement renversé cet effet de l'IA. L'inhibiteur de l'ECA captopril s'est avéré efficace à haute dose dans notre modèle d'IA. Cette efficacité pourrait être liée à une modulation du SRA tissulaire et de la fibrose dans le VG.