Personne : Doyle, Michael Robert
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Université Laval. École d'architecture
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- PublicationAccès libreMapping urban underground potential in Dakar, Senegal: from the analytic hierarchy process to self-organizing maps(Oxford New York Pergamon Press, 2019-06-04) Doyle, Michael RobertThis article presents a mapping method that seeks to provide urban planning with a diagnostic overview of the underground resources of an urban area. Resource potentials (for buildable space, groundwater or geomaterial extraction and geothermal energy) tend to be investigated on a needs-only basis once a project or plan has already been elaborated. This paradigm of ‘needs to resources’ risks favoring single-use rather than multi-use underground development, leading to unforeseen conflicts between possible uses (e.g., pollution of an aquifer or congestion of infrastructure) or the irreversible loss of potential synergies (e.g., geothermal collectors on building foundations). The Deep City project at the EPFL in Switzerland has been working on an alternative paradigm of ‘resources to needs’, which is a holistic approach addressing the underground as a source of opportunity in synergy with surface development for curtailing urban sprawl while preserving public places or parks. The method, which combines geological and surface urban data, produces maps of individual and combined resource potentials without prioritizing any particular planning objective. This communication will present the method and the resulting maps through a case study conducted in 2016 in the city of Dakar, Senegal. After first summarizing the Deep City project and the mapping method, the urban and geological conditions of Dakar will be presented, followed by the application and results of the Deep City method. The calculation of the combined potentials map is an opportunity to compare two alternative methods of combination, the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). Although the mapping method does not require complicated data collection or analysis, the SOM may be better suited both for dealing with larger quantities of data and for providing more meaningful mappings of geological and urban data in three dimensions.
- PublicationAccès libreFrom hydro/geology to the streetscape : evaluating urban underground resource potential(Elsevier, 2016-02-05) Doyle, Michael RobertDespite a persistent call for a greater recognition of the underground in urban planning practices, cities still tend to address underground resources only when the need arises. Historically, this has proven costly for cities that have neglected the potential synergies and conflicts between, for instance, urban aquifers and underground infrastructure systems or building foundations. For urban planning to remain in a paradigm of needs to resources risks rendering conflicts between urban underground activities irreversible and possible synergies unattainable. Researchers and practitioners from multiple disciplines argue for the many benefits of underground development—alternative renewable energy and drinking water sources, additional urban space and reusable geomaterials. Visualizing resource potential is a first step in raising awareness among planners of the capacities of the underground. Existing mapping methods tend to focus only on underground space development in contexts where the needs for the underground are already urgent and do not explicitly engage with the distribution of existing land uses. As an alternative to existing methods, this paper will present a procedure for mapping underground resource potential that incorporates four resources—space, groundwater, geothermal energy and geomaterials—developed by the Deep City project at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. San Antonio, Texas, a city with a complex relationship to an underground aquifer system but current little need and support for underground space, serves to illustrate the mapping method. Two future surface light rail and bus rapid transit lines, presented in recent planning reports, are examined in light of a latent but as yet untapped multi-resource underground potential. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the method to other cities and possible opportunities for improvement.
- PublicationAccès libre‘Resources to Needs’ : a paradigm for addressing the potentiality of the urban volume(Cogitatio, 2017-03-07) Doyle, Michael RobertUnderground resources are often addressed only out of necessity, leading to conflicts between uses and missing opportunities for productive synergies. The Deep City project is exploring a paradigm of ‘resources to needs’, which considers resource potentials prior to specific urban projects or plans. Mapping is central to the project and has been explored in several cities around the world. The ‘resources to needs’ paradigm, however, has received little theoretical or philosophical attention. To think resources before needs challenges common urban normative models and the process-oriented thinking of mechanical and ecological paradigms popular today. Where current methods for mapping the underground tend to enroll elements in a particular performance or resource use, Deep City seeks to facilitate an intermediate stage in which resource potentials can coexist without any pre-existing interaction or relationship. To think about the urban volume this way, this article works with the informational motor proposed by French philosopher Michel Serres. The logics of substitution and circulation of the map and its contents helps to think an alternative form of mapping in which the map itself becomes a reservoir of potentiality for thinking the urban volume less in terms of predefined functions and processes than a mass to be collectively cultivated.