Personne :
Doyle, Michael Robert

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Michael Robert
Université Laval. École d'architecture
Identifiant Canadiana

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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 10
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Mapping urban underground potential in Dakar, Senegal: from the analytic hierarchy process to self-organizing maps
    (Oxford New York Pergamon Press, 2019-06-04) Doyle, Michael Robert
    This article presents a mapping method that seeks to provide urban planning with a diagnostic overview of the underground resources of an urban area. Resource potentials (for buildable space, groundwater or geomaterial extraction and geothermal energy) tend to be investigated on a needs-only basis once a project or plan has already been elaborated. This paradigm of ‘needs to resources’ risks favoring single-use rather than multi-use underground development, leading to unforeseen conflicts between possible uses (e.g., pollution of an aquifer or congestion of infrastructure) or the irreversible loss of potential synergies (e.g., geothermal collectors on building foundations). The Deep City project at the EPFL in Switzerland has been working on an alternative paradigm of ‘resources to needs’, which is a holistic approach addressing the underground as a source of opportunity in synergy with surface development for curtailing urban sprawl while preserving public places or parks. The method, which combines geological and surface urban data, produces maps of individual and combined resource potentials without prioritizing any particular planning objective. This communication will present the method and the resulting maps through a case study conducted in 2016 in the city of Dakar, Senegal. After first summarizing the Deep City project and the mapping method, the urban and geological conditions of Dakar will be presented, followed by the application and results of the Deep City method. The calculation of the combined potentials map is an opportunity to compare two alternative methods of combination, the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). Although the mapping method does not require complicated data collection or analysis, the SOM may be better suited both for dealing with larger quantities of data and for providing more meaningful mappings of geological and urban data in three dimensions.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    From hydro/geology to the streetscape : evaluating urban underground resource potential
    (Elsevier, 2016-02-05) Doyle, Michael Robert
    Despite a persistent call for a greater recognition of the underground in urban planning practices, cities still tend to address underground resources only when the need arises. Historically, this has proven costly for cities that have neglected the potential synergies and conflicts between, for instance, urban aquifers and underground infrastructure systems or building foundations. For urban planning to remain in a paradigm of needs to resources risks rendering conflicts between urban underground activities irreversible and possible synergies unattainable. Researchers and practitioners from multiple disciplines argue for the many benefits of underground development—alternative renewable energy and drinking water sources, additional urban space and reusable geomaterials. Visualizing resource potential is a first step in raising awareness among planners of the capacities of the underground. Existing mapping methods tend to focus only on underground space development in contexts where the needs for the underground are already urgent and do not explicitly engage with the distribution of existing land uses. As an alternative to existing methods, this paper will present a procedure for mapping underground resource potential that incorporates four resources—space, groundwater, geothermal energy and geomaterials—developed by the Deep City project at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. San Antonio, Texas, a city with a complex relationship to an underground aquifer system but current little need and support for underground space, serves to illustrate the mapping method. Two future surface light rail and bus rapid transit lines, presented in recent planning reports, are examined in light of a latent but as yet untapped multi-resource underground potential. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the method to other cities and possible opportunities for improvement.
  • Publication
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Embodied energy and lifecycle costs : questioning (Mis)conceptions about underground construction
    (Cedar Rapids, 2019-08-15) Doyle, Michael Robert; Thalmann, Philippe; Parriaux, Aurèle
    In the construction community, underground construction is perceived as being significantly more costly and more energy-consuming than comparable surface construction. Although the literature is scarce, studies that have attempted to quantify this difference tend to compare built projects in heterogeneous conditions. The objective of this article is to present the results of life cycle cost and energy consumption simulations conducted as part of the Deep City project at the École Polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. This article begins by examining the preconceptions the construction industry seems to have about underground construction as reported in the press from 2007 to 2017. Then, we present the method and results of two unpublished studies on the differences in costs and energy consumption of a hypothetical commercial building project in two different geological contexts. We find that energy consumption can be 15% higher but also 4% lower. We also find that underground construction in unconsolidated sediment ground is approximately 23% more expensive, while only 10% in bedrock, which is significantly lower than the 200% to 300% differentials reported in previous studies. We attribute this to the level of detail of our studies, the inclusion of ground conditions, and conclude that our results help to dispel certain misconceptions about underground construction, which can contribute positively to urban sustainable development goals.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Underground potential for urban sustainability : mapping resources and their interactions with the deep city method.
    (MDPI, 2016-08-25) Doyle, Michael Robert; Thalmann, Philippe; Parriaux, Aurèle
    In the process of urban growth, the underground is often only addressed once all surface alternatives have been exhausted. Experience shows that this can lead to unforeseen conflicts (e.g., subsidence, groundwater pollution) and to lost opportunities (e.g., combined geothermal systems and building foundations or recycling of excavation materials). One challenge is how the underground potentials are assessed by urban actors; data collection, analysis and visualization for the different resources are often conducted in separate disciplinary corners and administrative divisions. This paper presents a mapping method developed within the Deep City project at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and its application to San Antonio, Texas. San Antonio is interesting in its lack of major underground infrastructure and its few means and political support for short-term underground development. We will specifically look at the production of a series of interaction maps, an original mapping strategy that is complementary to the resource potential maps we have produced in prior work. After situating this research within larger theoretical and philosophical questions, we will show how mapping the combined potentiality of underground resources can serve as a compass for future interdisciplinary discussions that address the urban underground as a source of opportunity, rather than as an afterthought.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Construire en sous-sol : un bilan économique
    (SEATU - Société des éditions des associations techniques universitaires, 2020-12-01) Doyle, Michael Robert; Parriaux, Aurèle; Thalmann, Philippe
    La construction souterraine n’est pas beaucoup plus coûteuse qu’en surface : telle est la thèse que soutiennent les auteurs de cette étude comparative de différents scénarios d’une construction fictive en surface ou souterraine. Elle devrait permettre de dissiper certaines idées erronées sur la construction en sous-sol, alors que cette stratégie, qui contribue à réduire l’étalement urbain, s’apprête à entrer dans les politiques urbaines.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    À la recherche de la densité optimale
    (Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013-01-01) Thalmann, Philippe; Doyle, Michael Robert
    Même si les propriétaires fonciers préfèrent en général disposer de droits à bâtir plus importants, les promoteurs ne les utilisent pas toujours entièrement. Cela complique la planification urbaine pour les autorités. Mais celles-ci ne savent pas toujours comment fixer des objectifs de densité. Les multiples critères du développement durable, tel qu’ils interviennent dans un projet de quartier durable, compliquent encore les choses. Ce chapitre analyse la question de la densité optimale du point de vue des autorités et du point de vue du promoteur. Il pose également un regard spécifique sur les visions développées pour le secteur de Waldstadt à Berne.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Designing for mobile activities : WiFi hotspots and users in Quebec City
    (2011) Doyle, Michael Robert; Després, Carole
    Les nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) permettent de mener davantage d’activités en dehors des lieux de travail et de résidence. De plus en plus de commerces offrent un accès sans-fil gratuit à l’Internet (WiFi) en même temps que le nombre d’appareils mobiles capables de se brancher à l’Internet est en pleine croissance. L’individu qui recherche une connexion Internet gratuite dans la ville pour pratiquer des activités à distance a vraisemblablement l’embarras du choix. Tandis que de nombreuses études s’intéressent à l’impact des TIC sur des lieux comme des milieux sociaux, rares sont celles qui s’interrogent sur les qualités physiques de ces milieux. Les architectes et les urbanistes abordent rarement le WiFi comme un élément de design : la présence de ce dernier se limitent souvent à quelque chose considéré anecdotique ou invasif. Ce projet de recherche, mené à Québec dans le cadre d’un mémoire de Maîtrise en sciences de l’architecture au sein du Groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche sur les banlieues (GIRBa), se penche sur les divers profils d’utilisation et d’appropriation du WiFi afin de réfléchir à celui-ci comme un élément important de design pour les lieux publics et semi-publics au 21e siècle. Pour ce faire, ce projet identifie les lieux et les secteurs les plus populaires pour l’utilisation du WiFi par l’analyse de la base de données de l’organisme à but non lucratif, ZAP Québec, qui gère le service WiFi des lieux publics et semi-publics à Québec depuis 2006. Ensuite, une enquête Internet mené auprès d’un échantillon de 63 utilisateurs WiFi à Québec suggère une diversité de profils d’usage de l’Internet sans-fil. En dernier lieu, une analyse spatiale inspiré du Pattern Language développé par Christopher Alexander dans les années 1970 a permit d’identifier des configurations spatiales récurrentes dans les lieux publics et semi-publics les plus fréquentés. Ce mémoire révèle que certaines tendances observées tant chez les usagers que les lieux les plus fréquentés peuvent servir à guider les stratégies d’implantation du WiFi et le design des lieux où son utilisation est prévue. Bien que ce mémoire demeure exploratoire et soulève beaucoup de questions, il porte un nouveau regard sur un phénomène qui mérite d’être l’objet de futures études. Des directions possibles pour ces dernières sont discutées en conclusion.
  • Publication
    The informational motor of Michel Serres : an architectonics of algorithmic reasoning and abstraction
    (2017-09-01) Doyle, Michael Robert
    Confronted by the mysteries of the world, humanity has developed various strategies of making sense of the incomprehensible—of rationalizing the real. From ritual and custom to geometry and algebra, models of religion and science have attempted to bring a world of heterogeneous entities into a common space and time. Rationalizations run the risk, however, of excluding that which is external to their model: They presume a single space of communication. Philosopher Michel Serres has worked extensively with the possibilities of a communicational space that is founded upon inclusion, rather than exclusion. The creation of such a space would require a new sort of instrument of cognition—an informational motor—which would enable us to articulate large sets of heterogeneous elements whose common order, borrowing from Information Theory, can only be foregrounded on a background of disordered noise. Looking at the work of Serres as well as of the Roman architect Vitruvius and more recent scholars, I argue that, in a similar way that the atomist physics of Ancient Greece challenged the model of a world ordered by the intentions of the Gods, quantum physics challenges our model of a world whose underlying order can be captured by a single model. With quantum mechanics, we are again thrust into a world of indeterminacy where the very act of rationalization is constitutive of our reality. With both algorithmic and abstract reasoning, however, we can build informational motors that are fueled by contingency and powered by the differences in the patterns hidden in the noise. In developing this argument, I will work mainly with symmetries between the different forms of reasoning presented here, avoiding as much as possible imposing one model of rationalization on another.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    ‘Resources to Needs’ : a paradigm for addressing the potentiality of the urban volume
    (Cogitatio, 2017-03-07) Doyle, Michael Robert
    Underground resources are often addressed only out of necessity, leading to conflicts between uses and missing opportunities for productive synergies. The Deep City project is exploring a paradigm of ‘resources to needs’, which considers resource potentials prior to specific urban projects or plans. Mapping is central to the project and has been explored in several cities around the world. The ‘resources to needs’ paradigm, however, has received little theoretical or philosophical attention. To think resources before needs challenges common urban normative models and the process-oriented thinking of mechanical and ecological paradigms popular today. Where current methods for mapping the underground tend to enroll elements in a particular performance or resource use, Deep City seeks to facilitate an intermediate stage in which resource potentials can coexist without any pre-existing interaction or relationship. To think about the urban volume this way, this article works with the informational motor proposed by French philosopher Michel Serres. The logics of substitution and circulation of the map and its contents helps to think an alternative form of mapping in which the map itself becomes a reservoir of potentiality for thinking the urban volume less in terms of predefined functions and processes than a mass to be collectively cultivated.