Personne :
Lemire, Mélanie

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Université Laval. Département de médecine sociale et préventive
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 15
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    MercuNorth - monitoring mercury in pregnant women from the Arctic as a baseline to assess the effectivness of the Minamata Convention
    (Oulu : International Association of Circumpolar Health Publishers, 2021-06-03) Adlard, Bryan; Lemire, Mélanie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Long, Manhai; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Rautio, Arja; Myllynen, Päivi; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Dudarev, Alexey A.; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Berner, Jim; Ayotte, Pierre
    Exposure to mercury (Hg) is a global concern, particularly among Arctic populations that rely on the consumption of marine mammals and fish which are the main route of Hg exposure for Arctic populations.The MercuNorth project was created to establish baseline Hg levels across several Arctic regions during the period preceding the Minamata Convention. Blood samples were collected from 669 pregnant women, aged 18–44 years, between 2010 and 2016 from sites across the circumpolar Arctic including Alaska (USA), Nunavik (Canada), Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Northern Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). Descriptive statistics were calculated, multiple pairwise comparisons were made between regions, and unadjusted linear trend analyses were performed.Geometric mean concentrations of total Hg were highest in Nunavik (5.20 µg/L) and Greenland (3.79 µg/L), followed by Alaska (2.13 µg/L), with much lower concentrations observed in the other regions (ranged between 0.48 and 1.29 µg/L). In Nunavik, Alaska and Greenland, blood Hg concentrations have decreased significantly since 1992, 2000 and 2010 respectively with % annual decreases of 4.7%, 7.5% and 2.7%, respectively.These circumpolar data combined with fish and marine mammal consumption data can be used for assessing long-term Hg trends and the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Towards a better understanding of the benefits and risks of country food consumption using the case of walruses in Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada)
    (Elsevier BV, 2020-02-13) Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M.; Lemire, Mélanie; Avard, Ellen; Furgal, C. (Chris); Simard, Manon; Burness, Gary P.; Bertrand, Philip; Suppa, Sandy
    Food insecurity affects Inuit communities. One solution is to consume locally harvested foods, named country foods. However, some country foods are not eaten as often as before, and pressures including contaminants and environmental changes threaten the health of Arctic fauna, thus its suitability for local consumption. By combining Inuit Knowledge with laboratory data, our study assessed the benefits and risks of walrus consumption by Inuit in Nunavik, Québec, Canada. It aimed to increase understanding of: 1) the hunt of healthy Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus); 2) the safe preparation of walruses; 3) the nutritional benefits and risks of consuming walruses. To do so, we interviewed 34 hunters and Elders from Nunavik. Levels of mercury, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium were evaluated from locally harvested walruses. Through the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program, a total of 755 Atlantic walrus samples, collected between 1994 and 2013, were tested for Trichinella nativa. Information on botulism was reviewed. While interviews informed on how to select healthy walruses and prepare them for consumption, laboratory analyses revealed that walruses had elevated levels of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium but low levels of mercury compared to some other wildlife. Only 3% of the 755 walruses were infected with T. nativa. Most walruses' infections were found within individuals from the South East Hudson Bay stock, where Inuit have thus decided to stop hunting since mid-2000s. Finally, although the number of outbreaks of trichinellosis related to the consumption of walruses has significantly reduced in Nunavik, botulism could continue to be an issue when igunaq (i.e. aged walrus) is not properly prepared. With the support of the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program and transmission of Inuit knowledge on igunaq preparation, the consumption of Atlantic walruses has the potential to help address issues related to food insecurity in Nunavik in the future.
  • Publication
    Regional variation in energy storage strategies in American glass eels from Eastern Canada
    (ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.), 2015-06-26) Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Lemire, Mélanie; Tremblay, Réjean
    Energy status was analyzed in glass eels captured during two early waves of arrival at the mouths of the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, Canada (MR), and Grande-Rivière-Blanche, Québec, Canada (GRB), and according to their salinity preference (freshwater, brackish, or saltwater). Glass eels captured in the GRB estuary were larger, more pigmented, and exhibited higher whole-body glycogen, phospholipid, and sterol and wax ester contents. Those from MR had a higher condition index and a higher whole-body triacylglycerol content, suggesting different patterns of storage and/or use of energy reserves. Within a river, a delay of two weeks in estuarine arrival was characterized by significantly lower energy reserves. No differences in energy storage were observed according to salinity preference. Thus, the results revealed the occurrence of different energy storage strategies according to glass eel migration distance and duration, but not according to salinity preference.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Exposure to benzene, toluene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Nunavimmiut aged 16 years and over (Nunavik, Canada) : Qanuilirpitaa 2017 survey
    (Orlando Fla. : Academic Press, 2021-12-18) Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Ayotte, Pierre; Aker, Amira; Blanchette, Caty; Ricard, Sylvie; Gilbert, Véronique; Avard, Ellen; Lemire, Mélanie
    There are numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that Inuit may be exposed to from combustion, cooking, heating, vehicle exhaust, active and passive smoking and other local sources of contaminants such as oil spills or open-air burning in landfills. To better assess the levels of exposure to these non-persistent chemicals, we measured a suite of benzene, toluene (two VOCs) and PAHs metabolites in pooled urine samples from youth and adults aged 16 years old and over who participated in the Qanuilirpitaa? 2017 Inuit Health Survey (Q2017), a population health survey conducted in Nunavik. A cost- effective pooling strategy was established and 30 different pools from individual urine samples (n =1266) were created by grouping individual urine samples by sex, age groups and regions. To assess smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke, cotinine levels were measured in individual urine samples. We found that benzene, toluene, all detected PAHs metabolites and cotinine levels were significantly higher in Q2017 compared to adults in the Canadian Health Measure Survey Cycle 4 (2014–2015) or the general U.S population (2015–2016). Moreover, mean levels of one benzene metabolite, S-phenylmercapturic acid, and several PAHs metabolites, 1-naphthol, 2-and 3-hydroxyfluorene, and 4- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, known to be associated with smoking habits, were higher in Q2017 compared to reference values (RV95) established for non-smokers in the general Canadian population. Furthermore, benzene and PAHs metabolites were all correlated with cotinine levels. Our results suggest that the high smoking prevalence in Nunavik is an important contributor to the elevated benzene and PAHs exposure. Other local sources may add to that exposure, although we were not able to account for their contribution. These data highlight the importance of regional and community efforts for reducing smoking and to encourage smoke-free homes in Nunavik, while continuing to investigate and reduce other possible local sources of exposure to benzene, toluene and PAHs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Anemia, iron status, and associated protective and risk factors among children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 years old from four First Nations communities in Quebec
    (Canadian Public Health Association, 2020-03-13) Tahir, Emad; Lemire, Mélanie; Lucas, Michel; Little, Matthew; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Mergler, Donna; Bélanger, Richard E.; Ayotte, Pierre; Gros-Louis McHugh, Nancy
    Objectives: Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) are frequent among Indigenous children of Canada, but few data are available in Quebec. The present study aimed to characterize anemia and ID prevalence and associated protective and risk factors among First Nations youth in Quebec. Methods: The 2015 First Nations (JES!-YEH!) pilot study was conducted among children and adolescents (3 to 19 years; n=198) from four First Nations communities in Quebec. Blood and urine samples and anthropometric measurements were collected. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), plasma hs-CRP, and urinary cotinine levels were measured. Factors associated with anemia and ID (including traditional and market food consumption) were assessed using an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire, based on which nutritional intakes were calculated. Structural equation models were used totest associations. Results: The prevalence of anemia and ID was elevated (16.8% and 20.5% respectively). Traditional meat, fruit, and fruit juice (naturaland powdered)—via their positive association with vitamin C intake—were the only food variables positively associated with SF (coefficient [95% CI] 0.017 [0.000, 0.114]; 0.090 [0.027, 0.161]; and 0.237 [0.060, 0.411]). Male sex was also associated with higher SF (0.295 [0.093, 0.502]). Inflammation status (hs-CRP > 5 mg/L) was inversely associated with Hb (−0.015 [−0.025,−0.005]), whereas SF was positively associated with Hb (0.066 [0.040, 0.096]). Fruit and juice consumption was also positively associated with Hb, via vitamin C intake and SF (0.004 [0.001, 0.010]; 0.008 [0.003, 0.017]). Conclusions: Interventions fostering healthier food environments as well as higher consumption of traditional meats and foods naturally rich in vitamin C, which is known to enhance iron absorption, and fighting inflammation could contribute to decrease the high prevalence of anemia and ID in this young Indigenous population.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Twenty “must-read” research articles for primary care providers in Nunavik: scoping study and development of an information tool
    (International Association of Circumpolar Health Publishers, 2019-03-04) Lemire, Mélanie; Cauchon, Michel; Paquin, Vincent; Fortin, Gabriel; Sandy, Glenda; Fletcher, Christopher M.; Perrault-Sullivan, Gentiane; Ouellet, Jean
    While health needs in Nunavik are distinct, there is a scarcity of knowledge transfer intended forlocal primary care providers. We aimed to build an information tool in the form of a newsletterand a website to share with them a selection of relevant research articles. To identify sucharticles, a scoping study of Inuit health research published between 2012 and 2017 was con-ducted. Selection criteria were adapted from the framework of information mastery. After adatabase search yielding 2896 results, publications were screened for eligibility. Next, the 226eligible articles were evaluated and scored for their relevance, their methods (including commu-nity participation), their local applicability and their clinical utility. The 20 highest-scored articleswere selected for dissemination in a newsletter. They were summarised and presented in 6thematic emails: Child Development, Infectious Diseases, Traditional and Modern Medicine,Metabolism, Nutrition and Contaminants, and Inuit Perspectives. The newsletter was sent toover 190 health workers and regional stakeholders in Nunavik and was also published online.We hope that this project will foster knowledge sharing and inter-sectorial collaboration betweenresearch, public health and clinical care. Trends in Inuit health research are discussed.
  • Publication
    The unique contribution of a local response group in the field investigation and management of a trichinellosis outbreak in Nunavik (Québec, Canada)
    (Canadian Public Health Association, 2019-10-21) Lemire, Mélanie; Proulx, Jean-François; Lévesque, Benoît; Simard, Manon; Iqaluk, Martha; Ducrocq, Julie; Elijassiapik, Lisa; Ningiuk, Etok; Perkins, Pamela
    Setting : Consumption of raw game meats is important for Inuit health and well-being but may sometimes increase risk of exposure to parasites. In Nunavik, following trichinellosis outbreaks in the 1980s caused by raw walrus consumption, a diagnostic test was developed for the region and offered to all Inuit communities by 1997. Despite this prevention program, an important trichinellosis outbreak occurred in 2013, affecting 18 inhabitants of Inukjuak. Intervention : Because the classical outbreak investigation did not rapidly converge toward a common food source or specific event, a local response group, composed of four community members appointed by the Municipal Council as well as the regional public health physician, nurse and wildlife parasitologist, was created. Their objective was to investigate potential sources of infection related to the outbreak, hence the investigation of the types of meats consumed, the movement of meats between and within the community, and the local practices of processing game meat. Outcomes : Though the source of infection was not fully confirmed, this local investigation identified the distribution of transformed polar bear meat as the most probable source of infection. The creation of this unique, intersectoral and intercultural local response group fostered the use of local knowledge to better understand aspects of the modern food system, and is one of the most innovative outcomes of this investigation. Implications : Integrating multiple ways of knowing was critical for the management of this important public health issue and contributed to community members’ mobilization and empowerment with respect to local food safety issues.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Selenoneine is a major selenium species in beluga skin and red blood cells of Inuit from Nunavik
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-04-30) Lemire, Mélanie; Dumas, Pierre; Little, Matthew; Achouba, Adel; Ayotte, Pierre; Ouellet, Nathalie
    Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada) exhibit a high selenium (Se) status because oftheir frequent consumption of marine mammal foods. Indirect evidence from our previous studies hadsuggested that selenoneineea novel selenocompoundemay be accumulating in the blood of Nuna-vimmiut. We used a liquid-chromatography/inductively coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS/MS) method to measure concentrations of selenoneine and its methylated metabolite Se-methylselenoneine in archived red blood cells (RBC) obtained from 210 Nunavimmiut living in com-munities along the Hudson Strait, where marine mammal hunting and consumption are most frequent inNunavik. This method was adapted to quantify selenoneine and its methylated metabolite in belugamattaaq, an Inuit delicacy consisting of the skin with the underlying layer of fat and the major dietarysource of Se for Nunavimmiut. Total selenium concentration was also measured in RBC and belugamattaaq samples by isotope dilution ICP-MS/MS. The median selenoneine concentration in RBC was413mg Se/L (range¼3.20e3230mg Se/L), representing 54% (median) of total Se content (range¼1.6e91%). Quantification of selenoneine infive beluga mattaaq samples (skin layer) from Nunavik revealed amedian concentration of 1.8mg Se/g wet wt (range¼1.2e7.4mg Se/g), constituting 54% (median) of thetotal Se content (range¼44e74%). Se-methylselenoneine was also detected in Inuit RBC but not inbeluga mattaaq, suggesting that selenoneine undergoes methylation in humans. Selenoneine may protect Nunavimmiut from methylmecury toxicity by increasing its demethylation in RBC and in turndecreasing its distribution to target organs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and associations with thyroid parameters in First Nation children and youth from Quebec
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-04-24) Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Lemire, Mélanie; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Ayotte, Pierre; Gros-Louis McHugh, Nancy
    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in several consumer goods. Exposure to PFASs in children has been associated with alteration in thyroid hormones, which have critical roles in brain function. OBJECTIVE: In 2015, 198 children and youth (3-19 y) were recruited as part of the pilot project Jeunes, Environnement et Santé/Youth, Environment and Health (JES!-YEH!), realized in collaboration with four First Nation communities in Quebec. We aimed to evaluate serum concentrations of PFASs in relation to concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4) and thyroglobulin while adjusting for relevant confounders. METHODS: PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA), 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) thyroid parameters (TSH, free T4, and thyroglobulin) were measured in serum samples of 186 participants. Iodine, creatinine, and cotinine were measured in urine samples. Serum levels of PFASs were compared to those measured in the general Canadian population and elsewhere. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine associations between PFASs and TSH, free T4 and thyroglobulin. RESULTS: PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS serum concentrations were low. However, PFNA concentrations among participants aged 12 to 19 years old from Anishinabe communities were three times higher than those measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2011) for the same age group (Geometric Means: 3.01 μg/L and 0.71 μg/L, respectively) and were particularly higher in the Anishinabe participants aged 6 to 11 years old (GM: 9.44 μg/L). Few participants had levels of TSH, free T4, and thyroglobulin outside age-specific paediatric ranges. When adjusted for relevant covariates and other contaminants, PFNA serum concentrations were positively associated with free T4 levels (Adjusted β = 0.36; p = 0.0014), but not with TSH and thyroglobulin levels. No association was observed between the other PFAS and thyroid hormones parameters. CONCLUSION: This pilot project reveals among the highest exposure to PFNA in children reported until today, and suggests effects of PFNA as an endocrine disruptor, highlighting the importance of investigating the sources and effects of disproportionate exposure to emerging contaminants in some indigenous communities and ban all PFAS at the international scale.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Oceans and human health : navigating changes on Canada’s coasts
    (Canadian Science Publishing, 2020-12-22) Archambault, Philippe; Batal, Malek; Kenny, Tiff-Annie; Chan, Hing Man; Little, Matthew; Cheun, William; Plante, Steve; Eddy, Tyler D.; Ayotte, Pierre; Ota, Yoshitaka; Pétrin-Desrosiers, Claudel; Poitras, Julien; Polanco, Fernando; Singh, Gerald; Lemire, Mélanie
    Ocean conditions can affect human health in a variety of ways that are often overlooked and unappreciated. Oceans adjacent to Canada are affected by many anthropogenic stressors, with implications for human health and well-being. Climate change further escalates these pressures and can expose coastal populations to unique health hazards and distressing conditions. However, current research efforts, education or training curriculums, and policies in Canada critically lack explicit consideration of these ocean–public health linkages. The objective of this paper is to present multiple disciplinary perspectives from academics and health practitioners to inform the development of future directions for research, capacity development, and policy and practice at the interface of oceans and human health in Canada. We synthesize major ocean and human health linkages in Canada, and identify climate-sensitive drivers of change, drawing attention to unique considerations in Canada. To support effective, sustained, and equitable collaborations at the nexus of oceans and human health, we recommend the need for progress in three critical areas: (i) holistic worldviews and perspectives, (ii) capacity development, and (iii) structural supports. Canada can play a key role in supporting the global community in addressing the health challenges of climate and ocean changes.