Personne : Archambault, Philippe
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Université Laval. Département de biologie
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- PublicationAccès librePredator traits determine food-web architecture across ecosystems(Springer Nature, 2019-05-20) Brose, Ulrich; Archambault, Philippe; Legagneux, Pierre; Iles, Alison C.Predator–prey interactions in natural ecosystems generate complex food webs that have a simple universal body-size architecture where predators are systematically larger than their prey. Food-web theory shows that the highest predator–prey body-mass ratios found in natural food webs may be especially important because they create weak interactions with slow dynamics that stabilize communities against perturbations and maintain ecosystem functioning. Identifying these vital interactions in real communities typically requires arduous identification of interactions in complex food webs. Here, we overcome this obstacle by developing predator-trait models to predict average body-mass ratios based on a database comprising 290 food webs from freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems across all continents. We analysed how species traits constrain body-size architecture by changing the slope of the predator–prey body-mass scaling. Across ecosystems, we found high body-mass ratios for predator groups with specific trait combinations including (1) small vertebrates and (2) large swimming or flying predators. Including the metabolic and movement types of predators increased the accuracy of predicting which species are engaged in high body-mass ratio interactions. We demonstrate that species traits explain striking patterns in the body-size architecture of natural food webs that underpin the stability and functioning of ecosystems, paving the way for community-level management of the most complex natural ecosystems.
- PublicationRestreintBiodiversity Ecosystem Functioning (BEF) approach to further understanding aquaculture-environment interactions(Blackwell Publishing, 2020-02-18) Lacoste, Élise; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W.Coastal benthic ecosystems may be impacted by numerous human activities, including aquaculture, which continues to expand rapidly. Indeed, today aquaculture worldwide provides more biomass for human consumption than do wild fisheries. This rapid development raises questions about the interactions the practice has with the surrounding environment. In order to design strategies of sustainable ecosystem exploitation and marine spatial planning, a better understanding of coastal ecosystem functioning is needed so that tools to quantify impacts of human activities, including aquaculture, may be developed. To achieve this goal, some possible directions proposed are integrated studies leading to new concepts, model development based on these concepts and comparisons of various ecosystems on a global scale. This review draws on existing literature to (i) briefly summarize the major ecological interactions between off-bottom shellfish aquaculture and the environment, (ii) introduce research on the influence of benthic diversity on ecosystem functioning (BEF relationships) and (iii) propose a holistic approach to conduct aquaculture–environment studies using a BEF approach, highlighting the need for integrated studies that could offer insights and perspectives to guide future research efforts and improve the environmental management of aquaculture.