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Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

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Université Laval. Département des sciences animales
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Normative data for the Montreal cognitive assessment in middle-aged and elderly Quebec french people
    (Elsevier Science N, 2016-10-22) Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Potvin, Olivier; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Laforest, Sophie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Monetta, Laura; Tremblay, Pascale; Larouche, Eddy; Boucher, Linda; Bergeron, David; Bélanger-Gagnon, Jean-François; Belleville, Sylvie; Macoir, Joël; Lorrain, Dominique; Laforce, Robert; Hudon, Carol; Gosselin, Nadia
    Objective: Given that aging is associated with higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia, improving early detection of cognitive impairment has become a research and clinical priority. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening instrument used to assess different aspects of cognition. Despite its widespread use, norms adjusted to the sociodemographics of Quebec-French people are not yet available. Such norms are however important because performance on neuropsychological tests varies according to sociodemographic variables including age, sex, and education. As such, the present study aimed to establish normative data for the MoCA in middle-aged and elderly Quebec-French population. Method: For that purpose, 1,019 community-dwelling older adults aged between 41 and 98 were recruited. Participants from 12 recruiting sites completed the MoCA. Regression-based normative data were produced and cross-validated with a validation sample (n = 200). Results: Regression analyses indicated that older age, lower education level, and male sex were associated with poorer MoCA scores. The best predictive model included age (p < .001), education (p < .001), sex (p < .001), and a quadratic term for education (education X education; p < .001). This model explained a significant amount of variance of the MoCA score (p < .001, R2 = 0.26). A regression equation to calculate Z scores is presented. Conclusions: This study provides normative data for the MoCA test in the middle-aged and elderly French-Quebec people. These data will facilitate more accurate detection and follow-up of the risk of cognitive impairment in this population, taking into account culture, age, education, and sex.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Links between metabolic and structural changes in the brain of cognitively normal older adults : a 4-year longitudinal follow-up
    (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2019-01-15) Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Potvin, Olivier; Nugent, Scott; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol
    We aimed to longitudinally assess the relationship between changing brain energy metabolism (glucose and acetoacetate) and cognition during healthy aging. Participants aged 71 ± 5 year underwent cognitive evaluation and quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at baseline (N = 25) and two (N = 25) and four (N = 16) years later. During the follow-up, the rate constant for brain extraction of glucose (Kglc) declined by 6%–12% mainly in the temporo-parietal lobes and cingulate gyri (p ≤ 0.05), whereas brain acetoacetate extraction (Kacac) and utilization remained unchanged in all brain regions (p ≥ 0.06). Over the 4 years, cognitive results remained within the normal age range but an age-related decline was observed in processing speed. Kglc in the caudate was directly related to performance on several cognitive tests (r = +0.41 to +0.43, all p ≤ 0.04). Peripheral insulin resistance assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly inversely related to Kglc in the thalamus (r = −0.44, p = 0.04) and in the caudate (r = −0.43, p = 0.05), and also inversely related to executive function, attention and processing speed (r = −0.45 to −0.53, all p ≤ 0.03). We confirm in a longitudinal setting that the age-related decline in Kglc is directly associated with declining performance on some tests of cognition but does not significantly affect Kacac.