Personne : Mérette, Chantal
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Université Laval. Département de psychiatrie et de neurosciences
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- PublicationRestreintSpeed and trajectory of changes of insomnia symptoms during acute treatment with cognitive–behavioral therapy, singly and combined with medication(Elsevier Science, 2014-03-31) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Vallières, Annie; Guay, Bernard; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon.; Ivers, HansObjectives : To examine the speed and trajectory of changes in sleep/wake parameters during short-term treatment of insomnia with cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) alone versus CBT combined with medication; and to explore the relationship between early treatment response and post-treatment recovery status. Methods : Participants were 160 adults with insomnia (mean age, 50.3 years; 97 women, 63 men) who underwent a six-week course of CBT, singly or combined with 10 mg zolpidem nightly. The main dependent variables were sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality, derived from sleep diaries completed daily by patients throughout the course of treatment. Results : Participants treated with CBT plus medication exhibited faster sleep improvements as evidenced by the first week of treatment compared to those receiving CBT alone. Optimal sleep improvement was reached on average after only one week for the combined treatment compared to two to three weeks for CBT alone. Early treatment response did not reliably predict post-treatment recovery status. Conclusions : Adding medication to CBT produces faster sleep improvement than CBT alone. However, the magnitude of early treatment response is not predictive of final response after the six-week therapy. Additional research is needed to examine mechanisms involved in this early treatment augmentation effect and its impact on long-term outcome.
- PublicationAccès libreLanguage delay in severely neglected children : a cumulative or specific effect of risk factors?(Elsevier, 2010-04-22) Mérette, Chantal; Sylvestre, AudetteObjectives: This research sought to determine if the language delay (LD) of severely neglected children under 3 years old was better explained by a cumulative risk model or by the specificity of risk factors. The objective was also to identify the risk factors with the strongest impact on LD among various biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Methods: Sixty-eight severely neglected children and their mothers participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were between 2 and 36 months of age. Data included information about the child's language development and biological, psychological, and environmental risk factors. Results: Prevalence of LD is significantly higher in this subgroup of children than in the population as a whole. Although we observed that the risk of LD significantly increased with an increase in the cumulative count of the presence of the child's biological-psychological risk factors, the one-by-one analysis of the individual factors revealed that the cumulative effect mainly reflected the specific impact of the child's cognitive development. When we considered also the environmental risk factors, multivariate logistic regression established that cognitive development, the mother's own physical and emotional abuse experience as a child, and the mother's low acceptability level towards her child are linked to LD in severely neglected children. Conclusions: Language development is the result of a complex interaction between risk factors. LD in severely neglected children is better explained by the specificity of risk factors than by the cumulative risk model. Practice implications: Most prevention and early intervention programs promote and target an increase in the quantity and quality of language stimulation offered to the child. Our results suggest that particular attention should be given to other environmental factors, specifically the mother's psychological availability and her sensitivity towards the child. It is essential to suggest interventions targeting various ecological dimensions of neglectful mothers to help break the intergenerational neglect transmission cycle. It is also important to develop government policies and ensure that efforts among the various response networks are concerted since in-depth changes to neglect situations can only come about when all interested parties become involved.
- PublicationAccès libreIncidence, persistence, and remission rates of insomnia over 5 years(American Medical Association, 2020-11-06) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Jarrin, Denise C.; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, HansImportance: Insomnia is a significant public health problem, but there is little information on its natural history. Objective: To assess the incidence, persistence, and remission rates of insomnia over a 5-year naturalistic follow-up period. Design, settings and participants: This cohort study included participants with and without sleep problems selected from the adult population in Canada from August 2007 to June 2014. Participants completed an annual survey about their sleep and health status for 5 consecutive years. Exposure: Using validated algorithms, participants were classified at each assessment as being good sleepers (n = 1717), having an insomnia disorder (n = 538), or having subsyndromal insomnia (n = 818). Main outcomes and methods: Survival analyses were used to derive incidence rates of new insomnia among the subgroup of good sleepers at baseline and persistence and remission rates among those with insomnia at baseline. Sleep trajectories were examined by looking at year-person transitions between each consecutive year summed over the 5-year follow-up period. All inferential analyses were weighted according to normalized sampling weights. Results: The sample included 3073 adults (mean [SD] age, 48.1 [15.0] years; range, 18.0-95.0 years; 1910 [62.2%] female). Overall, 13.9% (95% CI, 11.0%-17.5%) of initial good sleepers developed an insomnia syndrome during the 5-year follow-up period, and incidence rates were higher among women than among men (17.6% [95% CI, 13.6%-22.7%] vs 10.1% [95% CI, 6.6%-15.3%; χ2 = 4.43; P = .03). A total of 37.5% (95% CI, 32.6%-42.5%) of participants with insomnia at baseline reported insomnia persisting at each of the 5 annual follow-up times. For subsyndromal insomnia, rates were 62.5% at 1 year to 26.5% at 5 years. For syndromal insomnia, rates were 86.0% at 1 year to 59.1% at 5 years. Conversely, remission rates among those with subsyndromal insomnia were almost double the rates among those with an insomnia syndrome at 1 year (37.5% [95% CI, 31.7%-44.0%] vs 14.0% [95% CI, 9.3%-20.8%]), 3 years (62.7% [95% CI, 56.7%-68.7%] vs 27.6% [95% CI, 20.9%-35.9%]), and 5 years (73.6% [95% CI, 68.0%-78.9%%] vs 40.9% [95% CI, 32.7%-50.4%]). Yearly trajectories showed that individuals who were good sleepers at baseline were 4.2 (95% CI, 3.51-4.89) times more likely to stay good sleepers in the subsequent year, but once they developed insomnia, they were equally likely to report symptoms (47% probability) than to return to a good sleeper status (53% probability) 1 year later. Similarly, those with an insomnia syndrome at any given assessment were more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) to remain in that status (persistence) than to improve (remittance) at the next assessment; even among those who improved, the odds of relapse were greater (adjusted odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.23-3.37) than those to improve in the following year. Conclusion and relevance: The findings suggest that insomnia is often a persistent condition. Considering the long-term adverse outcomes associated with persistent insomnia, these findings may have important implication for the prognosis and management of insomnia.
- PublicationAccès librePolygenic risk scores distinguish patients from non-affected adult relatives and from normal controls in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder multi-affected kindreds(Wiley, 2017-11-28) Mérette, Chantal; Boies, Sébastien; Paccalet, Thomas; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, MichelRecent studies have used results on SNP association with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) discriminating non‐familial unrelated patients from controls. Little is known about the role of PRS in densely affected multigenerational families. We tested PRS differences between affected SZ and BD family members from their non‐affected adult relatives (NAARs) in Eastern Quebec Kindreds and from controls. We examined 1227 subjects: from 17 SZ and BD kindreds, we studied 153 patients (57 SZ, 13 schizoaffective, and 83 BD) and 180 NAARs, and 894 unrelated controls from the Eastern Quebec population. PRS were derived from published case‐control association studies of SZ and BD. We also constructed a combined SZ and BD PRS by using SNPs from both SZ and BD PRS. SZ patients had higher SZ PRS than controls (p = 0.0039, R2 = 0.027) and BD patients had higher BD PRS than controls (p = 0.013, R2 = 0.027). Differences between affected subjects and NAARs and controls were significant with both SZ and BD PRS. Moreover, a combined SZ‐BD PRS was also significantly associated with SZ and BD when compared to NAARs (p = 0.0019, R2 = 0.010) and controls (p = 0.0025, R2 = 0.028), revealing a SZ‐BD commonality effect in PRS at the diagnosis level. The SZ and the BD PRS, however, showed a degree of specificity regarding thought disorder symptoms. Overall, our report would confirm the usefulness of PRS in capturing the contribution of common genetic variants to the risk of SZ and BD in densely affected families.
- PublicationRestreintCognitive structure from childhood to adulthood in kindreds densely affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder(Elsevier Ltd., 2015-07-23) Mérette, Chantal; Jomphe, Valérie; Moreau, Isabel; Gilbert, Elsa; Paccalet, Thomas; Roy, Marc-André; Rouleau, Nancie; Cellard, Caroline; Maziade, MichelThe developmental aspects of cognitive structures from childhood until adulthood and across different levels of risk for psychopathology have been little studied. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive factorial structure in subsamples from highly familial and densely affected kindreds of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – i.e. affected adult members, non-affected adult members and high-risk youth. The same neuropsychological battery was administered in a sample of 480 participants: schizophrenia and bipolar patients (n=51), young high-risk offspring (n=61), non-affected adult relatives of patients (n=96), and controls (n=272). Exploratory Factorial Analysis was performed in the control sample and yielded a 5-factor solution: verbal comprehension, processing speed/working memory, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the hierarchical 5-factor solution was well suited for the young high-risk offspring, the non-affected adult relatives of patient and the patients. A hierarchical model with a “g” factor was a good fit for all subsamples. These results suggest that cognitive impairments may aggregate in highly familial individuals.
- PublicationAccès libreCognitive behavioral therapy, singly and combined with medication, for persistent insomnia : a randomized controlled trial(American Medical Association, 2009-05-20) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Baillargeon, Lucie; Vallières, Annie; Bastien, Célyne; Guay, Bernard; Ivers, HansContext: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and hypnotic medications are efficacious for short-term treatment of insomnia, but few patients achieve complete remission with any single treatment. It is unclear whether combined or maintenance therapies would enhance outcome. Objectives: To evaluate the added value of medication over CBT alone for acute treatment of insomnia and the effects of maintenance therapies on long-term outcome. Design, Setting, and Patients: Prospective, randomized controlled trial involving 2-stage therapy for 160 adults with persistent insomnia treated at a university hospital sleep center in Canada between January 2002 and April 2005. Interventions: Participants received CBT alone or CBT plus 10 mg/d (taken at bedtime) of zolpidem for an initial 6-week therapy, followed by extended 6-month therapy. Patients initially treated with CBT attended monthly maintenance CBT for 6 months or received no additional treatment and those initially treated with combined therapy (CBT plus 10 mg/d of zolpidem) continued with CBT plus intermittent use of zolpidem or CBT only. Main Outcome Measures: Sleep onset latency, time awake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency derived from daily diaries (primary outcomes); treatment response and remission rates derived from the Insomnia Severity Index (secondary outcomes). Results: Cognitive behavioral therapy used singly or in combination with zolpidem produced significant improvements in sleep latency, time awake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency during initial therapy (all P<.001); a larger increase of sleep time was obtained with the combined approach (P = .04). Both CBT alone and CBT plus zolpidem produced similar rates of treatment responders (60% [45/75] vs 61% [45/74], respectively; P = .84) and treatment remissions (39% [29/75] vs 44% [33/74], respectively; P = .52) with the 6-week acute treatment, but combined therapy produced a higher remission rate compared with CBT alone during the 6-month extended therapy phase and the 6-month follow-up period (56% [43/74 and 32/59] vs 43% [34/75 and 28/68]; P = .05). The best long-term outcome was obtained with patients treated with combined therapy initially, followed by CBT alone, as evidenced by higher remission rates at the 6-month follow-up compared with patients who continued to take zolpidem during extended therapy (68% [20/30] vs 42% [12/29]; P = .04). Conclusion: In patients with persistent insomnia, the addition of medication to CBT produced added benefits during acute therapy, but long-term outcome was optimized when medication is discontinued during maintenance CBT.
- PublicationAccès librePrevalence of insomnia and its treatment in Canada(Canadian Psychiatric Association, 2011-09-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Bélanger, Lynda; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, HansObjectives : To estimate the prevalence of insomnia and examine its correlates (for example, demographics and physical and mental health) and treatments. Methods : A sample of 2000 Canadians aged 18 years and older responded to a telephone survey about sleep, health, and the use of sleep-promoting products. Respondents with insomnia were identified using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, criteria. Results : Among the sample, 40.2% presented at least 1 symptom of insomnia (that is, trouble falling or staying asleep, or early morning awakening) for a minimum of 3 nights per week in the previous month, 19.8% were dissatisfied with their sleep, and 13.4% met all criteria for insomnia (that is, presence of 1 insomnia symptom 3 nights or more per week for at least 1 month, accompanied by distress or daytime impairment). Insomnia was associated with female sex, older age, and poorer self-rated physical and mental health. Thirteen per cent of respondents had consulted a health care provider for sleep difficulties once in their lifetime. Moreover, 10% had used prescribed medications for sleep in the previous year, 9.0% used natural products, 5.7% used over-the-counter products, and 4.6% used alcohol. There were differences between French- and English-speaking adults, with the former group presenting lower rates of insomnia (9.5%, compared with 14.3%) and consultation (8.7%, compared with 14.4%), but higher rates of prescribed medications (12.9%, compared with 9.3%) and the use of natural products (15.6%, compared with 7.4%). Conclusions : Insomnia is a prevalent condition, although few people seek professional consultation for this condition. Despite regional differences in the prevalence and treatments used to manage insomnia, prescribed medications remain the most widely used therapeutic option.
- PublicationAccès libreFamilial aggregation of insomnia(American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, etc, 2017-02-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Rochefort, Amélie; Savard, Josée; Dauvilliers, Yves A.; Jarrin, Denise C.; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, HansStudy Objectives: There is little information about familial aggregation of insomnia; however, this type of information is important to (1) improve our understanding of insomnia risk factors and (2) to design more effective treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to investigate evidence of familial aggregation of insomnia among first-degree relatives of probands with and without insomnia. Methods: Cases (n = 134) and controls (n = 145) enrolled in a larger epidemiological study were solicited to invite their first-degree relatives and spouses to complete a standardized sleep/insomnia survey. In total, 371 first-degree relatives (Mage = 51.9 years, SD = 18.0; 34.3% male) and 138 spouses (Mage = 55.5 years, SD = 12.2; 68.1% male) completed the survey assessing the nature, severity, and frequency of sleep disturbances. The dependent variable was insomnia in first-degree relatives and spouses. Familial aggregation was claimed if the risk of insomnia was significantly higher in the exposed (relatives of cases) compared to the unexposed cohort (relatives of controls). The risk of insomnia was also compared between spouses in the exposed (spouses of cases) and unexposed cohort (spouses of controls). Results: The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed biological relatives was 18.6% and 10.4%, respectively, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.80 (p = .04) after controlling for age and sex. The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed spouses was 9.1% and 4.2%, respectively; however, corresponding RR of 2.13 (p = .28) did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Results demonstrate evidence of strong familial aggregation of insomnia. Additional research is warranted to further clarify and disentangle the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in insomnia.
- PublicationAccès libreIncidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample(2009-08-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Baillargeon, Lucie; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, HansIntroduction: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, there is little information about its incidence and risk factors. This study estimated the incidence of insomnia and examined potential risk factors in a cohort of good sleepers followed over a one-year period. Methods. Participants were 464 good sleepers who completed 3 postal evaluations over a one-year period (i.e., baseline, 6 months, and 12 months). Questionnaires assessed sleep, psychological and personality variables, stressful life events and coping skills, and health-related quality of life. Participants were categorized into 3 subgroups: (a) good sleepers (i.e., participants who remained good sleepers at the 3 assessments), (b) insomnia symptoms incident cases (i.e., developed insomnia symptoms either at 6- or 12-month follow-up), and (c) insomnia syndrome incident cases (i.e., developed an insomnia syndrome either at 6- or 12- month follow-up). Results: One-year incidence rates were 30.7% for insomnia symptoms and 7.4% for insomnia syndrome. These rates decreased to 28.8% and 3.9% for those without prior lifetime episode of insomnia. Compared to good sleepers and insomnia symptoms incident cases, insomnia syndrome incident cases presented a premorbid psychological vulnerability to insomnia, characterized by higher depressive and anxiety symptoms, lower extraversion, higher arousability, and poorer self-rated mental health at baseline. They also presented a higher level of bodily pain and a poorer general health. Five variables were associated with a new onset of an insomnia syndrome: previous episode of insomnia, positive family history of insomnia, higher arousability predisposition, poorer self-rated general health, and higher bodily pain. Conclusion: The one-year insomnia incidence rate was very high and several psychological and health factors were associated with new onset insomnia. Improved knowledge about the nature of these predisposing factors would be helpful to guide the development of effective public health prevention and intervention programs to promote better sleep quality.
- PublicationAccès libreInsomnia, hypnotic use, and road collisions : a population-based, 5-year cohort study(American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 2020-02-29) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, HansStudy Objectives The study objectives were to examine accidental risks associated with insomnia or hypnotic medications, and how these risk factors interact with sex and age. Methods A population-based sample of 3,413 adults (Mage = 49.0 years old; 61.5% female), with or without insomnia, were surveyed annually for five consecutive years about their sleep patterns, sleep medication usage, and road collisions. Results There was a significant risk of reporting road collisions associated with insomnia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00–1.45) and daytime fatigue (HR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.01–1.47). Insomnia and its daytime consequences were perceived to have played some contributory role in 40% of the reported collisions. Both chronic (HR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.17–1.91) and regular use of sleep medications (HR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.16–2.14) were associated with higher accidental risks, as well as being young female with insomnia and reporting excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Both insomnia and use of sleep medications are associated with significant risks of road collisions, possibly because of or in association with some of their residual daytime consequences (i.e. fatigue and poor concentration). The findings also highlight a new group of at-risk patients, i.e. young women reporting insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness.