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Grégoire, Jean-Pierre

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Université Laval. Faculté de pharmacie
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The economic burden of insomnia : direct and indirect costs for individuals with insomnia syndrome, insomnia symptoms and good sleepers
    (American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 2009-01-01) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Daley, Meagan; LeBlanc, Mélanie
    Background and purpose: Insomnia is a highly prevalent problem that is associated with increased use of health care services and products, as well as functional impairments. This study estimated from a societal perspective the direct and indirect costs of insomnia. Participants and methods: A randomly selected sample of 948 adults (mean age = 43.7 years old; 60% female) from the province of Quebec, Canada completed questionnaires on sleep, health, use of health-care services and products, accidents, work absences, and reduced productivity. Data were also obtained from the Quebec government administered health insurance board regarding consultations and hospitalizations. Participants were categorized as having insomnia syndrome, insomnia symptoms or as being good sleepers using a standard algorithm. Frequencies of target cost variables were obtained and multiplied by unit costs to generate estimates of total costs for the adult population of the province of Quebec. Results: The total annual cost of insomnia in the province of Quebec was estimated at $6.6 billion (Cdn$). This includes direct costs associated with insomnia-motivated health-care consultations ($191.2 million) and transportation for these consultations ($36.6 million), prescription medications ($16.5 million), over the-counter products ($1.8 million) and alcohol used as a sleep aid ($339.8 million). Annual indirect costs associated with insomnia-related absenteeism were estimated at $970.6 million, with insomnia-related productivity losses estimated at $5.0 billion. The average annual per-person costs (direct and indirect combined) were $5,010 for individuals with insomnia syndrome, $1431 for individuals presenting with symptoms, and $421 for good sleepers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the economic burden of insomnia is very high, with the largest proportion of all expenses (76%) attributable to insomnia-related work absences and reduced productivity. As the economic burden of untreated insomnia is much higher than that of treating insomnia, future clinical trials should evaluate the cost-benefits, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of insomnia therapies.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The benefit of aspirin therapy in type 2 diabetes : what is the evidence?
    (Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 2008-05-20) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Poirier, Paul; Moisan, Jocelyne; Sirois, Caroline
    Many clinical guidelines recommend aspirin therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However it is unclear whether the level of evidence in guidelines is derived from studies carried out among individuals with diabetes. Medline and Embase databases were searched to retrieve studies published since 1990, evaluating the effect of aspirin on cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Four studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria. The three clinical trials retrieved could not prove from a statistical point of view, the benefits of aspirin therapy for subjects with type 2 diabetes. Reduction in cardiac mortality was found only in one observational study. Consequently, these findings suggest that the clinical guidelines have based their recommendations upon the expected benefit previously observed in other high-risk populations. Given the lack of hard evidence and the different well-known platelet physiology encountered in patients with diabetes, use of aspirin as a standard treatment at the highest level of evidence in guidelines for subjects with type 2 diabetes should be revisited.
  • Publication
    Myocardial infarction and gastro-intestinal bleeding risks associated with aspirin use among elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes
    (Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, 2014-05-02) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Poirier, Paul; Moisan, Jocelyne; Sirois, Caroline
    Introduction. The benefi t of aspirin in primary prevention of myocardial infarction and the associated gastro-intestinal bleeding risks have not been well established in the elderly population with diabetes. Methods. Using Quebec administrative databases, we conducted two nested case-control analyses within a cohort of individuals aged 66 years newly treated with an oral antidiabetes drug between 1998 and 2003. The 28,067 individuals had no cardiovascular disease recorded in the database in the year prior cohort entry. They had not used prescribed aspirin, antiplatelet, or anticoagulant drugs, and were not hospitalized for gastro-intestinal bleeding in the year prior cohort entry. The odds of myocardial infarction and gastro-intestinal bleedings were compared between individuals who were current, past, or non-users of aspirin. Results. There were 1101 (3.9%) cases of myocardial infarction. Compared to non-users, neither aspirin users (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.71 – 1.13) nor aspirin past users (0.81; 0.62 – 1.06) showed a statistically signifi cant lower risk of myocardial infarction. There were 373 (1.3%) cases of gastro-intestinal bleeding. Current users of aspirin had about a 2-fold greater risk of gastro-intestinal bleeding compared to non-users (2.19; 1.53 – 3.13). Conclusions. Our results suggest that individual assessment of bleeding risk and cardiovascular risk is mandatory among elderly people with diabetes before introducing aspirin therapy.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Incidence of depression and associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Quebec, Canada : a population-based cohort study.
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2016-05-27) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lunghi, Carlotta; Moisan, Jocelyne; Guénette, Line
    It has been reported that the risk of depression is higher among people with type 2 diabetes compared with a nondiabetic population. Among diabetic patients, depression has been associated with worse self-care behaviors, poor glycemic control, and an increased risk of diabetes complications. Identifying factors associated with the occurrence of depression may help physicians identify earlier diabetic patients at a high risk of developing depression, improve prevention, and accelerate proper treatment. To our knowledge, very few population-based studies have reported on the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression as a consequence of type 2 diabetes over a long follow-up period. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression among type 2 diabetic patients newly treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (ADs) and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of depression. Administrative claims data from the public health insurance plan were used to identify a cohort of new oral AD users aged ≥18 years between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed from oral AD treatment initiation until the diagnosis of depression, ineligibility for the public drug plan, death, or the end of the study, whichever came first. Incidence rates were determined using person-time analysis. Factors associated with depression were identified using multivariable Cox regression analysis. We identified 114,366 new oral AD users, of which 4808 had a diagnosis of depression. The overall incidence rate of depression was 9.47/1000 person-years (PYs) (10.72/1000 PYs for women and 8.27/1000 PYs for men). The incidence of depression was higher during the year after oral AD treatment initiation. Independent factors associated with depression included having had mental disorders other than depression, hospitalization, a higher number of different drugs taken and of physicians visited during the year before oral AD initiation. Moreover, we observed a statistically significant age-by-socioeconomic status interaction. The incidence of diagnosed depression is higher during the first year after oral AD treatment initiation. Clinicians could pay particular attention to women, patients starting an AD at a young age, those with a low socioeconomic status, and especially those with a history of anxiety or dementia.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The natural history of insomnia : a population-based 3-year longitudinal study
    (JAMA, 2009-03-09) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Bélanger, Lynda; Savard, Josée; Espie, Colin A.; Baillargeon, Lucie; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Background Despite its high prevalence, little information is available about the natural history of insomnia. The extent to which episodes of insomnia will persist or remit over time is difficult to predict. We examined the natural history of insomnia and describe the most common trajectories over 3 years. Methods Three hundred eighty-eight adults (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [13.9] years; 61% women) were selected from a larger population-based sample on the basis of the presence of insomnia at baseline. They completed standardized sleep/insomnia questionnaires at 3 annual follow-up assessments. For each follow-up assessment, participants were classified into 1 of 3 groups (individuals with an insomnia syndrome, individuals with insomnia symptoms, and individuals with good sleep) on the basis of algorithms using standard diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Rates of persistent insomnia, remission, and relapse were computed for each group. Results Of the study sample, 74% reported insomnia for at least 1 year (2 consecutive assessments) and 46% reported insomnia persisting over the entire 3-year study. The course of insomnia was more likely to be persistent in those with more severe insomnia at baseline (ie, insomnia syndrome) and in women and older adults. Remission rate was 54%; however, 27% of those with remission of insomnia eventually experienced relapse. Individuals with subsyndromal insomnia at baseline were 3 times more likely to remit than worsen to syndrome status, although persistence was the most frequent course in that group as well. Conclusion These findings indicate that insomnia is often a persistent condition, in particular when it reaches the diagnostic threshold for an insomnia disorder.
  • Publication
    Effectiveness and content analysis of interventions to enhance oral antidiabetic drug adherence in adults with type2 diabetes : systematic review and meta-analysis
    (Elsevier, 2015-05-23) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Bruin, Marijn de; Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Guillaumie, Laurence; Pérez Herrera, Norma Maria; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Guénette, Line
    Objectives: To estimate the pooled effect size of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) adherence-enhancing interventions and to explore which of the behavior change techniques (BCTs) applied in the intervention groups modified this pooled intervention effect size. Methods: We searched relevant studies published until September 3, 2013, on MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Current Contents Connect, and Web of Science. Selected studies were qualitatively synthesized, and those of at least medium quality were included in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model was used to pool effectiveness (Hedges’s g) and to examine heterogeneity (Higgins I2). We also explored the influence on the pooled effectiveness of unique intervention BCTs (those delivered to the intervention groups but not control groups in a trial) by estimating their modifying effects. Results: Fourteen studies were selected for the qualitative synthesis and 10 were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effectiveness of the interventions was 0.21 (95% confidence interval −0.05 to 0.47; I2 = 82%). Eight unique BCTs were analyzed. “Cope with side effects” (P = 0.003) and “general intention formation” (P = 0.006) had a modifying effect on the pooled effectiveness. The pooled effectiveness of the interventions in which “cope with side effects” was applied was moderate (0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.31–0.96; I2 = 56%). Conclusions: The overall effectiveness of OAD adherence-enhancing interventions that have been tested is small. Helping patients cope with side effects or formulate desired treatment outcomes could have an impact on the effectiveness of OAD adherence-enhancing interventions. Only those interventions that include helping patients to cope with side effects appear to be particularly effective in improving OAD adherence.
  • Publication
    Underuse of cardioprotective treatment by the elderly with type 2 diabetes
    (Masson, 2008-04-18) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Poirier, Paul; Moisan, Jocelyne; Sirois, Caroline
    Aims. – To assess whether elderly patients with type 2 diabetes use a comprehensive cardioprotective regimen (CCR) of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and antiplatelet drugs in the year following oral antidiabetic drug initiation and, if so, to identify the determinants of such use. Methods. – Using the Quebec Diabetes Surveillance System administrative database, we carried out an inception cohort study of individuals aged 66 years and over who began oral antidiabetic therapy between 1998 and 2002. Those individuals with at least one claim in the year after starting antidiabetic treatment for an antihypertensive, a lipid-lowering and an antiplatelet drugs were deemed to be using a CCR. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to identify the characteristics associated with CCR use. Results. – Of the 48,505 individuals included in the study, 9912 (20.4%) used a CCR during the year following the first antidiabetic claim. Those more likely to use a CCR were men (odds ratio [OR]: 1.2; 99% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.1–1.3), those who had used an antihypertensive (1.6; 1.4–1.7), lipid-lowering (7.4; 6.8–8.0) or antiplatelet (7.3; 6.7–7.9) drug in the year before the first antidiabetic claim and those with a preexisting diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (1.9; 1.8–2.1). The odds of using a CCR increased every year. Conclusions. – CCR use by the elderly with type 2 diabetes in the year following antidiabetic initiation is low, and prior use of individual cardioprotective drugs is a strong predictor of its use. These findings suggest that the treatment of important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease is suboptimal.
  • Publication
    Suboptimal use of cardioprotective drugs in newly treated elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes.
    (American Diabetes Association, 2007-03-20) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Poirier, Paul; Moisan, Jocelyne; Sirois, Caroline
    Cardiovascular disease is the maincomplication experienced by el-derly individuals with diabetes (1).Despite randomized trials showing thebenefits of individual (2–4) or combined(5) pharmacological treatments of cardio-vascular risk factors in diabetes, observa-tional studies have shown suboptimal useof medications (6–8). However, little isknown about the use of cardioprotectivemedication among elderly individualswho were not already taking it before di-abetes treatment was undertaken. Wetherefore studied a population of elderlyindividuals with type 2 diabetes in theprovince of Quebec, Canada, who hadnot been treated with any antihyperten-sive, lipid-lowering, or antiplatelet drugsin the year before oral antidiabetes druginitiation. We assessed whether they useda comprehensive cardioprotective regi-men (CCR) of those three medications inthe year following oral antidiabetic initia-tion. We also identified the determinantsof a CCR use.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Association between interpersonal continuity of care and medication adherence in type 2 diabetes : an observational cohort study
    (Canadian Medical Association, 2017-05-08) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Dossa, Anara Richi; Lauzier, Sophie; Moisan, Jocelyne; Guénette, Line
    Background: Prior studies have shown that, compared to patients with a low level of interpersonal continuity of care, patients with a high level of continuity of care have a lower likelihood of hospital admission and emergency department visits, and a higher likelihood of patient satisfaction. We sought to determine whether higher levels of continuity of care are associated with medication persistence and compliance among new users of oral antidiabetic treatment. Methods: We conducted a medicoadministrative cohort study of new users of oral antidiabetics aged 18 years or more among people covered by the Quebec public drug plan. We excluded people with fewer than 730 days of treatment and those who had been in hospital for 275 days or more in the first or second year after initiation of antidiabetic treatment. We categorized continuity of care observed in the first year after treatment initiation as low, intermediate or high. The association between continuity of care and medication persistence and compliance was assessed using generalized linear models. Results: In this cohort of 60 924 new users of oral antidiabetic treatment, compared to patients with a high level of continuity of care, those with an intermediate and a low level of continuity of care were less likely to be persistent (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.98] and 0.96 [95% CI 0.95-0.97], respectively) and compliant (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.98 [95% CI 0.97-0.99] and 0.95 [0.94-0.97], respectively) with their antidiabetic treatment. Interpretation: A higher level of interpersonal continuity of care was associated with a higher likelihood of drug persistence and compliance. Since the strength of this association was weak, further research is required to determine whether continuity of care plays a role in medication adherence.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Association between loyalty to community pharmacy and medication persistence and compliance, and the use of guidelines-recommended drugs in Type 2 diabetes : a cohort study.
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015-07-01) Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Dossa, Anara Richi; Lauzier, Sophie; Moisan, Jocelyne; Guénette, Line; Sirois, Caroline
    Pharmacists record data on all drugs claimed and may build a personal relationship with their clients. We hypothesized that loyalty to a single pharmacy could be associated with a better quality of drug use.To assess the association between pharmacy loyalty and quality of drug use among individuals treated with oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs).This is a cohort study using Quebec Health Insurance Board data. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.New OAD users, aged ≥18 years.Individuals who filled all their prescription drugs in the same pharmacy during the first year of treatment were considered loyal. During year 2 of treatment we assessed 4 quality indicators of drug use: persistence with antidiabetes treatment, compliance with antidiabetes treatment among those considered persistent, use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB), and use of a lipid-lowering drug.Of 124,009 individuals, 59.75% were identified as loyal. Nonloyal individuals were less likely to persist with their antidiabetes treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86–0.91), to comply with their antidiabetes treatment (0.82; 0.79–0.84), to use an ACEi/ARB (0.85; 0.83–0.88) and to use a lipid-lowering drug (0.83; 0.80–0.85). Quality of drug use decreased as the number of different pharmacies increased (linear contrast tests <0.001).Results underscore the important role pharmacists could play in helping their clients with chronic diseases to better manage their drug treatments. Further research is needed to determine to what extent the positive effects associated with pharmacy loyalty are specifically due to pharmacists.