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- PublicationAccès libreLes travailleurs des plateformes numériques de transport de personnes et de livraison de repas au Québec : profil et motivations(CIRANO, 2022-06-15) Vultur, Mircea; Enel, Lucie; Barrette, Louis-Pierre; Viviers, SimonCette étude vise deux objectifs : a) établir un profil des travailleurs qui utilisent une plateforme numérique de transport de personne et/ou de livraison de repas au Québec et b) d’analyser les motifs sous-jacents à leur engagement dans le travail sur une plateforme numérique. La structure des analyses se décline comme suit : dans une première partie, sur la base d’une revue de la littérature, nous présentons les caractéristiques des travailleurs des plateformes et divers types de motivations pour s’engager dans l’emploi sur les plateformes. Nous y exposons également le protocole méthodologique et les données à la source de nos analyses. Dans une deuxième partie, en utilisant des données statistiques secondaires et inédites, nous dressons un portrait des travailleurs engagés sur les plateformes de transport de personnes et de livraison de repas au Québec en faisant ressortir notamment les spécificités de la population des jeunes travailleurs. Dans une troisième partie, en analysant des données d’entrevues, nous exposons une typologie des motivations invoquées par les jeunes québécois de 18 à 34 ans pour travailler sur les plateformes Uber et Uber Eats. En conclusion, nous ferons une synthèse des constats significatifs issus des analyses.
- PublicationAccès libreMeasuring stakeholder participation in evaluation : an empirical validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI)(Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, 2012-08-31) Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, JoëlBackground. Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. Objectives. This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that fully covers the content of participation, namely the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI). It specifically examines 1) the intercoder reliability of scores derived by two research assistants on published evaluation cases; 2) the convergence between the scores of coders and those of key respondents (i.e., authors); and 3) the convergence between the authors’ scores on the PEMI and the Evaluation Involvement Scale (EIS). Sample. A purposive sample of 40 cases drawn from the evaluation literature was used to assess reliability. One author per case in this sample was then invited to participate in a survey; 25 fully usable questionnaires were received. Measures. Stakeholder participation was measured on nominal and ordinal scales. Cohen’s kappa, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Spearman’s rho were used to assess reliability and convergence. Results. Reliability results ranged from fair to excellent. Convergence between coders’ and authors’ scores ranged from poor to good. Scores derived from the PEMI and the EIS were moderately associated. Conclusions. Evidence from this study is strong in the case of intercoder reliability and ranges from weak to strong in the case of convergent validation. Globally, this suggests that the PEMI can produce scores that are both reliable and valid.
- PublicationAccès libreGreen Edge ice camp campaigns : understanding the processes controlling the under-ice Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom(Göttingen Copernicus Publications, 2020-01-27) Massicotte, Philippe; Amiraux, Rémi; Amyot, Marie-Pier; Archambault, Philippe; Aubry, Cyril; Ayotte, Pierre; Bécu, Guislain; Bélanger, Simon; Bruyant, Flavienne; Christiansen-Stowe, Debra; Coupel, Pierre; Dezutter, Thibaud; Dominé, Florent; Dufour, Francis; Dufresne, Christiane; Dumont, Dany; Ferland, Joannie; Forget, Marie-Hélène; Fortier, Louis; Galí, Martí; Galindo, Virginie; Gourdal, Margaux; Grondin, Pierre-Luc; Guillot, Pascal; Guilmette, Caroline; Lacour, Léo; Lagunas, José Luis; Lalande, Catherine; Laliberté, Julien; Lambert Girard, Simon; Larivière, Jade; Lavaud, Johann; LeBaron, Anita; Lemire, Mélanie; Levasseur, Maurice; Marec, Claudie; Massé, Guillaume; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Neukermans, Griet; Oziel, Laurent; Rehm, Eric Carl; Reimer, Erin; Saint-Béat, Blanche; Sansoulet, Julie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Verin, Gauthier; Babin, MarcelThe Green Edge initiative was developed to investigate the processes controlling the primary productivity and fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) and to determine its role in the ecosystem. Two field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at an ice camp located on landfast sea ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay (67.4797∘ N, 63.7895∘ W). During both expeditions, a large suite of physical, chemical and biological variables was measured beneath a consolidated sea-ice cover from the surface to the bottom (at 360 m depth) to better understand the factors driving the PSB. Key variables, such as conservative temperature, absolute salinity, radiance, irradiance, nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll a concentration, bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and taxonomy, and carbon stocks and fluxes were routinely measured at the ice camp. Meteorological and snow-relevant variables were also monitored. Here, we present the results of a joint effort to tidy and standardize the collected datasets, which will facilitate their reuse in other Arctic studies.
- PublicationAccès libreAssociations between dietary profiles and perfluoroalkyl acids in Inuit youth and adults(Elsevier, 2022-10-22) Aker, Amira; Ayotte, Pierre; Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; De Silva, Amila; Ricard, Sylvie; Lemire, MélanieBackground: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a subset of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), are synthetic chemicals used in industrial and consumer applications. They are exceptionally stable and highly mobile in the environment, and were detected in high concentrations in Arctic wildlife and Nunavik Inuit. The study's objective was to study the association between dietary profiles in Nunavik and plasma PFAAs concentrations. Methods: The study used data from the Qanuilirpitaa? 2017 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (Q2017) (N = 1172) on Inuit adults aged 16-80 years. Nine PFAAs congeners were measured in plasma samples (six were detected). Dietary profiles were identified using latent profile analysis. Two sets of dietary profiles were included; the first included market (store-bought) and country foods (harvested/hunted from the land), and the second included only country foods. Multiple linear regression models regressed log-transformed PFAAs concentrations against the dietary profiles, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Results: We identified statistically significant 24.54-57.55 % increases in all PFAAs congeners (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, and PFOS) in the dietary profile defined by frequent country food consumption compared to the dietary profile defined by frequent market food consumption. Individuals defined by low consumption of foods (related to food insecurity) had higher concentrations of six PFAAs compared to individuals with frequent market food consumption. The associations were stronger with profiles defined by more frequent country food consumption, and particularly those with increased marine mammal consumption. PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFOS were particularly associated with high country food consumption frequency, such that their concentrations increased by approximately 67-83 % compared to those reporting no or very little consumption of any country foods. Conclusions: Increased country food consumption was strongly associated with higher PFAAs concentrations, particularly PFOS, PFDA, and PFUnDA. The results provide further evidence that the quality of country foods is being threatened by PFAAs contamination. Additional national and international regulations are required to protect the Arctic and its inhabitants from these pollutants.
- PublicationAccès libreFactors affecting river turbidity in a degrading permafrost environment : the Tasiapik River, Umiujaq (Nunavik)(Canadian Science Publishing, 2022-04-13) Manseau, Frédéric; Bhiry, Najat; Molson, John W. H.; Cloutier, DanielleThis study focuses on spatiotemporal changes in water turbidity in relation to permafrost to document the impact of meteorological conditions and water flow on hydro-sedimentary processes in northern regions. Starting in June of 2019, water turbidity data were collected at six sites along the Tasiapik River (Nunavik). A statistical analysis was completed based on records of water turbidity, precipitation, water flow, and air temperature. Our results show a significant correlation between air temperatures and turbidity, with a correlation of up to r = 0.59. These correlations depend on the location of the site along the river and the time of the study period (June–October 2019). The flow rate was the primary factor that caused variations in the turbidity of the Tasiapik River. Our results showed that following an increase in flow rate, there was an almost simultaneous increase in turbidity due to erosion of the banks. The duration and intensity of precipitation events are also important factors affecting the process of sediment transport. Even though meteorological conditions play an important role in turbidity variation, other characteristics of the site such as the topography and the existence of thermokarst lakes are additional factors that influence the dynamics of sediment transport in the Tasiapik River.