Speed-dependent modulation of the locomotor behavior in adult Mice reveals attractor and transitional gaits

Authors: Josset, Nicolas; Bretzner, Frédéric; Lemieux, Maxime; Couraud, Sebastien; Roussel, Marie
Abstract: Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds. Instead of using the classical paradigm defining gaits according to their footfall pattern, we combined the inter-limb coupling and the duty cycle of the stance phase, thus identifying several types of gaits: lateral walk, trot, out-of-phase walk, rotary gallop, transverse gallop, hop, half-bound, and full-bound. Out-of-phase walk, trot, and full-bound were robust and appeared to function as attractor gaits (i.e., a state to which the network flows and stabilizes) at low, intermediate, and high speeds respectively. In contrast, lateral walk, hop, transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and half-bound were more transient and therefore considered transitional gaits (i.e., a labile state of the network from which it flows to the attractor state). Surprisingly, lateral walk was less frequently observed. Using graph analysis, we demonstrated that transitions between gaits were predictable, not random. In summary, the wild-type mouse exhibits a wider repertoire of locomotor gaits than expected. Future locomotor studies should benefit from this paradigm in assessing transgenic mice or wild-type mice with neurotraumatic injury or neurodegenerative disease affecting gait.
Document Type: Article de recherche
Issue Date: 23 February 2016
Open Access Date: 29 April 2016
Document version: VoR
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/946
This document was published in: Frontiers in neuroscience, Vol. 10, 42 (2016)
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00042
Frontiers Research Foundation
Alternative version: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00042
26941592
Collection:Articles publiés dans des revues avec comité de lecture

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