Lipid-mediated inflammation and degeneration of bioprosthetic heart valves

Authors: Shetty, RahulPibarot, PhilippeAudet, AudreyJanvier, RichardDagenais, FrançoisPerron, JeanCouture, ChristianVoisine, PierreDesprés, Jean-PierreMathieu, Patrick
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The durability of bioprosthetic valves is limited by structural valve degeneration (SVD) leading to bioprostheses (BPs) stenosis or regurgitation. We hypothesized that a lipid-mediated inflammatory mechanism is involved in the SVD of BPs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen Freestyle stentless BP valves were explanted for SVD at a mean time of 5.9 +/- 3 years after implantation and were analysed by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 65 +/- 8 years and there were 11 male and seven female patients. Two of the 18 BPs had macroscopic calcification, whereas the other valves had minimal or no macroscopic calcification. Tears at the commissures leading to regurgitation was present in 16 BPs. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and glycosaminoglycans in the fibrosa layer of 13 BPs. Areas with ox-LDL were infiltrated by macrophages (CD68(+)) co-expressing the scavenger receptor CD36 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Zymogram showed the active form of MMP-9 within explanted BPs. EM studies revealed the presence of lipid-laden cells featuring foam cells and fragmented collagen. Nonimplanted control BPs obtained from the manufacturer (n = 4) had no evidence of lipid accumulation, inflammatory cell infiltration or expression of MMP9 within the leaflets. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the concept that lipid-mediated inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the SVD of BPs. These findings suggest that modification of atherosclerotic risk factors with the use of behavioural or pharmacological interventions could help to reduce the incidence of SVD.
Document Type: Article de recherche
Issue Date: 1 June 2009
Open Access Date: Restricted access
Document version: VoR
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/8128
This document was published in: European journal of clinical investigation, Vol. 39 (6), 471–480 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02132.x
Springer
Alternative version: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02132.x
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19490057
Collection:Articles publiés dans des revues avec comité de lecture

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