Rapid, one-pot procedure to synthesise 103Pd:Pd@Au nanoparticles en route for radiosensitisation and radiotherapeutic applications

Authors: Djoumessi, DianeLaprise-Pelletier, MyriamChevallier, PascaleLagueux, JeanCôté, Marie-FranceFortin, Marc-André
Abstract: The radioisotope palladium (103Pd), encapsulated in millimetre-size seed implants, is widely used in prostate cancer brachytherapy. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) distributed in the vicinity of 103Pd radioactive implants, strongly enhance the therapeutic dose of radioactive implants (radiosensitisation effect). A new strategy under development to replace millimetre-size implants, consist in injecting radioactive NPs in the affected tissues. The development of 103Pd@Au NPs distributed in the diseased tissue, could increase the uniformity of treatment (compared with massive seeds), while enhancing the radiotherapeutic dose to the cancer cells (through Au-mediated radiosensitisation effect). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a rapid, efficient, one-pot and easy-to-automatise procedure, allowing the synthesis of coreshell Pd@Au NPs. The novel synthesis route proposed here enables the production of Pd@Au NPs in not more than 4h, in aqueous media, with minimal manipulations, and relying on biocompatible and non-toxic molecules. This rapid multi-step process consists of the preparation of ultra-small Pd NPs by chemical reduction of an aqueous solution of H2PdCl4 supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) as reducing agent and 2, 3-meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as a capping agent. Pd conversion yields close to 87% were found, indicating the efficiency of the reaction process. Then Pd NPs were used as seeds for the growth of a gold shell (Pd@Au), followed by grafting with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to ensure colloidal stability. Pd@Au-PEG (TEM: 20.2 ± 12.1 nm) formed very stable colloids in saline solution as well as in cell culture medium. The physico-chemical properties of the particles were characterised by FTIR, XPS, and UV-vis. spectroscopies. The viability of PC3 human prostate cancer cells was not affected after a 24-h incubation cycle with Pd@Au-PEG NPs to concentrations up to 4.22 mM Au. Finally, suspensions of Pd@Au-PEG NPs measured in computed tomography (CT) are found to attenuate X-rays more efficiently than commercial Au NPs CT contrast media. A proof-of-concept was performed to demonstrate the possibility synthesise radioactive 103Pd:Pd@Au-PEG NPs. This study reveals the possibility to synthesise Pd@Au NPs rapidly (including radioactive 103Pd:Pd@Au-PEG NPs), and following a methodology that respects all the strict requirements underlying the production of NPs for radiotherapeutic use (rapidity, reaction yield, colloidal stability, NPs concentration, purification).
Document Type: Article de recherche
Issue Date: 2 February 2015
Open Access Date: 14 June 2016
Document version: VoR
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/5608
This document was published in: Journal of Materials Chemistry B: Materials for biology and medicine, Vol. 3 (10), 2192–2205 (2015)
Royal Society of Chemistry
Alternative version: 10.1039/C4TB01663G
Collection:Articles publiés dans des revues avec comité de lecture

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